Solid Waste Management:
state has no masterplan for solid waste management even in major urban
centers including the capital city of Agartala. According to the Agartala
Municipal Council, about 90-95 metric tonnes of solid waste is generated
per day. Of which approximately 50-60 metric tonnes are collected through
NGO collaboration and dumped in Haphama Dumping Ground in form of sanitary
land filling. In a recently held meeting (August 2001), Agartala Municipal
Council has proposed improvement of the same through additional deployment
of dumper, dozar, payloader and house to house collection, besides cleaning
up of major roads and 10 markets, at a cost of nearly Rs. 453.0 lakh.
A local NGO has also proposed to undertake work for conversion of organic
wastes into compost, vermicomposting, pelletization etc. No final decision
has been taken.
Biomedical waste means any waste, which generated during diagnosis, treatment, and immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities or in the production or testing of biologicals. Waste generation in hospitals and their disposal has always been a matter of concern to the medical profession.
Health care wastes
are produced in hospitals, health centers, clinics, nursing homes, pathological
laboratories, research institutions, veterinary clinics, midwifery centers
and other medical cares conducted at home. The amount of wastes generated
varies according to type of facilities. The total quantum of biomedical
waste can be categorized into:
Non-Infectious and non-hazardous waste
of the first two categories of waste at source is the first and foremost
step in waste management. The infectious and hazardous waste mixed with
the non-hazardous general ones multiplies problem in handling at final
disposal. Handling the sharps is extremely critical. It calls for separate
attention from other disposables in a waste management scheme.
of Health Care Establishments in Tripura:
wastes are being generated from the following Health Care Establishments
(HCEs) in Tripura:
district wise inventory of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) in Tripura
is given in Table-109.
wise inventory of Health Care Establishment in Tripura
Directorate of Health, Govt. Of Tripura, 2001].
treatment capacity of different Health Care Establishments in Tripura:
total bed capacity in different Health Care Establishments in Tripura
is given in Table 110.
110 : Bed
capacity of different Health Care Establishments in Tripura
on the waste audit carried out in representative hospitals, nursing
homes, pathological laboratories and using specific waste generation
factor evolved from them, the total quantum of solid biomedical waste
(which includes organic waste) generated in Tripura is found to be 1573.2
Kg/day. In addition, 136 m3 of wastewater per day is generated
from them. Out of this the quantity of organic waste is about 810 Kg/day.
Table 4 gives the quantity of waste generated in different Health Care
Establishments. This study is based on a recent report submitted by
National Productivity Council, New Delhi to the State Pollution Control
quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Health Care Establishments
Animal Health Care Centers, the total quantum of biomedical waste generated
is 298709.3 Kg/year and about 7800 m3/year of liquid waste
is generated from the same, as shown in Table 113.
quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Animal Health
Care Centers in Tripura
the basis of the above data, the quantity of biomedical waste expected
to be generated per bed, per day in the Health Care Establishments in
Tripura, has been calculated and is shown in (Table 114).
there is no appropriate system for disposal of biomedical waste. Joint
meetings with CPCB, TSPCB, local authorities, Urban Development Department,
Health Department and nursing homes have already been organized. Member
Secretary, TSPCB as the Prescribed Authority and has constituted an
Advisory Committee in the State under Biomedical Waste Rule. For effective
implementation of the rules, TSPCB is closely interacting with AMC,
nursing homes and Health Department. According to TSPCB, an action plan
for inventorisation of hospital waste and for setting up of facilities
for proper disposal of biomedical waste has been taken.
Hazardous Waste Management
large variety of synthetic chemicals are used daily for different application
for the benefit of human society. Chemicals like petroleum fuels, antibiotics
and other drugs, plastics, food preservatives, agricultural fertilizers,
pesticides etc. are entangled with our life. About 1,00,000 chemicals
are estimated to be in daily use and of these, approximately 7000 are
produced commercially in large quantities. Most of them have little
or severe adverse effect on environment. Some of them are fatal in respect
of human and animal health as well as to natural environment. These
effects may be acute or chronic i.e. they become visible after short
exposure or may be visualized after wide and prolonged usage.
wastes management has become an important environmental and public health
issue and concern with the ever-growing evidence of the serious consequences
of indiscriminate disposal. The control and management of hazardous
waste should draw a high level of public interest and socio-economic
and political forces must play a major role in the control of environmental
Government of India has notified necessary rules for handling and management
of hazardous waste in 1989, amended in 2000. However, the handling and
management of lead acid batteries has to be governed by the Batteries
(Management & Handling) Rules, 2000.
of hazardous waste generation in Tripura
to lack of infrastructure and communication, Tripura is still an industrially
backward state. The main livelihood of this state is agriculture. Most
of the production units in Tripura are small-scale in nature and most
of them do not available the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Therefore,
inventorisation of hazardous waste for this state can only be done on
the basis of medium-scale and large-scale industrial units. Based on
the available information an inventory of hazardous waste generating
units has been prepared by the National Productivity Council in 2001.
per the Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura, there are
four medium-scale projects are recorded presently:
from this, there are two large thermal power plants are now start operation.
Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura recorded the presence
of about 4724 small-scale registered industrial units in the state.
According to 1999-updated information, there are about 2837 small-scale
units located in the state. However, no information is available with
any organizations/agencies about the actual number of operating industrial
units in Tripura.
respect to industries existing in Tripura, the following departments
and industrial associations are involved:
of the Industrial Estates
of the small-scale units are randomly located. They are either located
on roadside or in the thickly populated residential and commercial places.
Rests of the industries are located in five designated industrial estates
on product manufactured and industrial process used, the following sectors
have been identified as hazardous waste generating sectors conforming
to Schedule I and II of Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling)
Amendment Rule, 2000:
Repairing and servicing of automobiles
sector & district wise distribution of Hazardous Waste Generating
on the information available with Tripura State pollution Control Board
(TSPCB), NPCs past experience, discussion with various departments,
industrial associations, industrial units and during field visits inventory
of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs) located in four districts
of Tripura has been prepared. The district and sector wise distribution
of hazardous waste generating units is given in Table-115.
of hazardous waste in Tripura
quantum of hazardous wastes generated by different industrial units
in the districts and industrial sectors of Tripura is given in Table-116.
quantum of hazardous waste i.e. 88,000 m3/year is generated from processing
of latex, which is highly bio-degradable and having the potential of
CH4 gas generation provided latex processing is in organized
way. Out of total 88,000 m3/year, 67 % is generated from
West district only and balance 33 % is spread in remaining three districts.
0.8 MT/year of waste developing and fixer residue is generated from
photo printing units in Tripura which is a smaller quantity. This is
at present being drained to the municipal drains. However some units
claim that they generally collect them in a drain and then send them
to Assam for recovery of silver from it.
240 MT of spent acid is being generated per year from lead acid battery
reconditioning process which is presently being discharged into municipal
drains from all the small shops of battery reconditioning spread all
over Tripura. The waste has to be neutralized and the lead has to be
removed before discharge. In addition approximately 1200 MT of lead
scrap is generated which is presently being sold out to traders for
reclamation of lead outside Tripura.
198 MT of oil containing sludge and about 13.2 MT of cloth contaminated
with oil are being generated per year from repairing & servicing
of automobile The oil containing sludge is presently being sold out
while cloth contaminated will oil is being burnt. The small shops for
repairing of automobiles are spread all over the Tripura.
are cluster of textile & handloom weaving units spread in West district
of Tripura. However, dyeing of cotton yarns & printing of textile
(bed sheets) is been carried out in co-operative societies only. The
azo- dyes are being used for dyeing and printing. The wastewater containing
spent dyes is being discharged into ground water without any treatment
through digging the wells right up to aquifer. However, it is estimated
that after installation of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) about 4.3
MT of sludge containing dyes will be generated per year at existing
capacity of dyeing & printing.
is only one tannery unit in West district of Tripura, which is not having
any wastewater treatment plant. However, it is estimated that after
installation of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), about 159 MT of sludge
containing chromium will be generated per year at existing capacity
of tanning i.e. 20,000 skins per month. Remaining hazardous wastes are
in very small quantity.
In summary, it is apparent that at present no proper systems of hazardous waste management exist in the state of Tripura. However, it is expected that an appropriate management programme will be initiated by the Government of Tripura, based on the finding and recommendations of National Productivity Council, New Delhi.
-114 : Quantity
of biomedical waste generated per bed per day from different Health
Care Establishments in Tripura
sector & district wise distribution of Hazardous Waste Generating
Units (HWGUs) in Tripura
Environment div. National Productivity Council, 2001]
and sector wise quantification of hazardous waste generation in Tripura