Biomedical Waste Generation in Tripura:

Based on the waste audit carried out in representative hospitals, nursing homes, pathological laboratories and using specific waste generation factor evolved from them, the total quantum of solid biomedical waste (which includes organic waste) generated in Tripura is found to be 1573.2 Kg/day. In addition, 136 m3 of wastewater per day is generated from them. Out of this the quantity of organic waste is about 810 Kg/day. Table 4 gives the quantity of waste generated in different Health Care Establishments. This study is based on a recent report submitted by National Productivity Council, New Delhi to the State Pollution Control Board, Tripura.

Table 1:Total quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

 

Waste categories

Quantity in Kg/day

State hospitals

District hospitals

Sub-division hospitals

Rural hospitals

Primary Health Center

Nursing homes

Pathological laboratories

Homoeopathic hospitals

Defense/

Police hospitals

Total

Human anatomical waste, blood & body parts

19.3

--

--

--

--

2.5

--

--

--

21.8

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

2.1

0.3

--

--

--

--

2

--

--

4.4

Waste scraps

3.6

4

Neg

Neg

Neg

7

10

--

2.3

26.9

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

180

24

5

3.2

4.1

10

20

38.5

27.9

312.7

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

115.7

50

54

26.3

42.6

25.5

30

--

12.3

356.4

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Organic waste and paper contaminated with other biomedical waste

410

77

128

63

101.5

30

Neg

--

41.5

851

Total

730.7

155.3

187

92.5

148.2

75

62

38.5

84

1573.2

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/day)

66

16

11

5

8

5

20

--

5

136

From Animal Health Care Centers, the total quantum of biomedical waste generated is 298709.3 Kg/year and about 7800 m3/year of liquid waste is generated from the same, as shown in Table 2

 Table 2 : Total quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Animal Health Care Centers in Tripura

Waste

Quantity in Kg/year

Veterinary hospitals

Veterinary dispensaries

Veterinary sub-centers

Artificial Insemination Centers

Disease Investigation Laboratories

Animal stock where AI is done

Total

Animal & slaughter house wastes (generated by veterinary hospitals, colleges, animal house and livestock farms)

756

--

--

--

9000

--

9756

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

--

--

--

--

10

--

10

Waste scraps

21

27

57.8

--

--

--

105.8

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

1890

500

11550

--

--

--

13940

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

756

445

4735.5

--

122

--

6058.5

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Total

3423

972

16343.3

--

9132

--

29870.3

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/day)

--

--

--

2400

--

5400

7800

On the basis of the above data, the quantity of biomedical waste expected to be generated per bed, per day in the Health Care Establishments in Tripura, has been calculated and is shown in (Table 4).

Table -4 : Quantity of biomedical waste generated per bed per day from different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

Waste categories

Quantity in Kg/bed/day

 

State hospitals

District hospitals

Sub-division hospitals

Rural hospitals

Nursing homes

Homoeopathic hospitals

Defense/

Police hospitals

Total

Human anatomical waste, blood & body parts

0.018

--

--

--

0.019

 

--

--

0.037

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

0.002

0.001

--

--

--

--

--

0.003

Waste scraps

0.003

0.013

Neg

Neg

0.053

--

0.026

0.095

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

0.17

0.08

0.009

0.012

0.076

1.925

0.321

2.593

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

0.109

0.167

0.105

0.101

0.196

--

0.141

0.819

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Organic waste and paper contaminated with other biomedical waste

0.389

0.257

0.248

0.242

0.231

--

0.477

1.844

Total

0.691

0.518

0.362

0.355

0.575

1.925

0.965

5.391

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/bed/day)

0.062

0.053

0.021

0.019

0.038

--

0.057

0.25

Currently, there is no appropriate system for disposal of biomedical waste. Joint meetings with CPCB, TSPCB, local authorities, Urban Development Department, Health Department and nursing homes have already been organized. Member Secretary, TSPCB as the Prescribed Authority and has constituted an Advisory Committee in the State under Biomedical Waste Rule. For effective implementation of the rules, TSPCB is closely interacting with AMC, nursing homes and Health Department. According to TSPCB, an action plan for inventorisation of hospital waste and for setting up of facilities for proper disposal of biomedical waste has been taken.

 

Hazardous Waste generation in Tripura

Due to lack of infrastructure and communication, Tripura is still an industrially backward state. The main livelihood of this state is agriculture. Most of the production units in Tripura are small-scale in nature and most of them do not available the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Therefore, inventorisation of hazardous waste for this state can only be done on the basis of medium-scale and large-scale industrial units. Based on the available information an inventory of hazardous waste generating units has been prepared by the National Productivity Council in 2002.

Industrial Sectors

Districts of Tripura State

 

Total no. of units

Waste Type

 

West Tripura

South Tripura

North Tripura

Dhalai

 

 

Drug intermediate (Diosgene) producing units

1

--

--

--

1

Different process recidues

Pharmaceuticals

5

--

--

--

5

Different process recidues

Latex producing units

12

7

8

4

31

Non-emulsified latex residue & wastewater

Lead acid batteries reconditioning

60

25

10

5

100

Spent H2SO4, exhauted lead plates with PVC seperators

Small printing press

60

14

13

6

93

Paper cloth containing printing ink residue, Lead letters

Government printing press

1

--

--

--

1

same as above

Newsprint (Letter printing)

29

--

--

--

29

same as above

Newspaper print (offset)

9

--

--

--

9

same as above

Photo printing

15

10

5

5

40

Different photochemicals

Leather tanning

1

--

--

--

1

ETP sludge contaminated with Chromium

Textile and handloom dying and printing

7

--

--

--

7

ETP sludge from wastewater treatment

Aluminium product with melting facility

2

--

--

--

2

Aluminium slag

Timber processing

1

--

--

--

1

Spent wood preservatives

Repairing and servicing of automobiles

80

19

33

10

142

Spent oil, oil emulsion, cloths contaminated with oil

 

 

 

 

Total

462

 

Table-6 : District and sector wise quantification of hazardous waste generation in Tripura

Industrial sector Waste type
Quantity in MT/year
 

 

 

West

South

North

Dhalai

Total

Lead acid battery reconditioning

Spent acid

144

60

24

12

240

 

Lead scrape

720

300

120

60

1200

Printing press

Paper cloth containing printing ink residue

9

2

1

0.9

14.1

 

Lead letter

0.42

0.09

0.09

0.04

0.06

Newspaper print

Developer residue

0.5

--

--

--

0.5

 

Fixer residue

0.5

--

--

--

0.5

Photo printing

Developer residue

0.18

0.12

0.06

0.06

0.42

 

Fixer residue

0.18

0.12

0.06

0.06

0.42

Leather tanning

ETP sludge contaminated with chromium

159

--

--

--

159

Textile and handloom dying

ETP sludge from wastewater treatment

4.3

--

--

--

4.3

Aluminium product with melting facility

Alumunium sludge

18

--

--

--

18

Pharmaceuticals

Process residue

0.04

--

--

--

0.04

Use and production of latex

Latex emulsion residue (wastewater)

52800 m3/year

13200 m3/year

13200 m3/year

8800 m3/year

88000 m3/year

Timber treatment

Residue from the use of the wood preservatives

0.024

--

--

--

0.024

Drugs intermediate production

Distillation residue

0.05

--

--

--

0.05

Repairing and servicing of automobiles

Oil containing sludge and oil emulsion

112

26

46

14

198

 

Cloths contaminated with oil

7.4

1.7

3

0.9

13.2

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