Energy Use in Urban & Rural Household
survey of more than 600,000 households, of which more than 80% are from
rural sector, shows a distinct profile of energy use for cooking in Tripura.
Wood based energy remains the largest supply source with 91.52% as against
61.50% for India followed by Kerosene based energy use, 1.72% which is
however much lower than the national figure of 7.16%; this can be attributed
either to inadequate supply of kerosene or to non-affordability of prices
by the people. Use of electrical energy in these households, show a very
low 0.07% as against 0.21% in India. The energy divide between rural and
using LPG as against 0.14% in rural sector, and 10.43% of urban household
using kerosene as against 0.27% in the rural sector; on the other hand
the use of wood based energy, as expected is much lower in urban sector
(67.60%) as compared to the rural sector (96.16%). The details of energy
use pattern are given in Table-64.
Consumption of Energy for Cooking at Household level
by type of fuel, 1991
the area of renewable energy use, small hydel power units produces a total
of 1.01MW and the solar energy is used in street lighting (335 number),
home lighting (1323 numbers) and in solar lanterns (1606 numbers). While
there is no record of household based biogas plants till 1987-88, a total
of 792 biogas plants have since been installed in six years from 1988-89
to 1993-94. There is no record of use of wind energy or wood based gasifier
power in the state of Tripura. Considering the vast forest resources and
suitability of land for growing captive plantation, wood based gasifier
power plants, on the basis of micro planning can open a new avenue for
off-grid stand alone rural electric/ power supply. The potential for such
off-grid, stand alone wood based gasifier power plant based on supply
from energy plantation with peoples’ participation need to be intensively
investigated Table-65 provides a current profile of Renewable Energy use
in Tripura and also the growth of biogas power unit at household level
between 1985-86 to 1993-1994.
65: Use of
Renewable Energy in Tripura
Directorate of Non Conventional Energy, Govt. of Tripura, 2001]
Fuel Saving Chullah
The efforts to have better energy management is reflected in introduction of improved chullahs. While neghbouring states of Arunachal Pradesh (15000/925), Assam 950000/490), Manipur (15000/3155), Mizoram (15000/3000), Nagaland (10000/107) have achieved a very low level against target set between 10000 (Nagaland) to 50000 (Assam), the State of Tripura has an impressive record of having 11549 fuel efficient chullahs (against target of 15000) introduced under national programme of improved chullahs during 1997-98 (MNES Annual Report, 1997-98). The current figure (March 2001) for improved chullah stands at 52156 showing a significant success. Such efforts if continued, may help to reduce consumption of wood biomass at an alarming rate.
state of Tripura also shows some effort to introduce household level biogas
plant since 1988-89. A total of 420 units have been installed within six
years (Table-66) and the figure now stands at 1005 (March 31, 2001). This
shows a growth of 2.5 times in seven years period.
66 : Household
Biogas Power Plant
The figures stands at 1005 as on 31st March 2001
: Anon 1996. Indian Energy Sector, Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy,
New Delhi p.-91]
order to improve the renewable energy production and consumption, State
Government formulated an Action Plan for the year of 2001-02 and set a
target for 10th Plan (2002-03 to 2006-07). The proposed target
for 2001-02 given in Table-67.
target for Action Plan (2001-02) & (2002-03 to 2006-07)
exploitation and natural gas in Tripura needs a special mentions under
“Energy” related discussion, for which details have been given under “Mineral
with regard to consumption of hydrocarbon fuel, the data available for
1995-96 to 1997-98 show an upwardly mobile trend, but in a slow pace except
for use of kerosene which shows a 50% increase in three years (Table-68).
68 : Consumption
of Kerosene & Diesel (Thousand liters) in Tripura
D.C Garg. 1999. Min. of Petroleum and Natural Gas, New Delhi. In
The Citizens Fifth Report, CSE, 1999, Part-2]
Electricity & Power
source of power generation in the State is oil, hydro-electric and gas.
Power generation in the State heavily depends on natural gas. The 1995-96
data shows that, the relative share of electricity generated through natural
gas is about 78% of the total electricity generated in the State. The
following table shows the steady rate increase of electricity generation
in the State (Table-69).
in Tripura (1999-2000)
Consumption of Energy
sector, domestic sector and agriculture sector are the main consumers
in the State. Out of the total consumption of power 362.43 MU during 1999-2000,
as much as 37% was used in the agricultural sector, 27% was utilized in
the domestic sector, 19% in the industrial sector and 12% in the commercial
–70 : Power
consumption pattern in the State (in MU)
Supply and Demand Situation
State is experiencing persistence power shortage due to increasing demand
of electricity for domestic sector, industrial sector and agricultural
sector. During the year 1999-2000 it is noted that the total installed
capacity was 85.35 MW, total generation 314.18MU, total purchase of power
was 259.15 MU and total power sold to ultimate consumer was 366.34 MU.
Total demand of electricity in the State was 133 MW.
Electrification of village and towns
available data shows that all the towns are electrified in the State while
80% of the village in the State was electrified during the year 1999-2000.
District wise data shows that South Tripura was the most electrified villages
in the State i.e. 94.40% followed by North Tripura 95%, Dhalai 73.62%
and West Tripura 70.60%.