first agricultural census (as a part of 4th World Agricultural
Census of 1970) was conducted as far back as in 1970-71. This was followed
by Second Agricultural Census of 1976-77, Third Agricultural Census of
1980-81, Fourth Agricultural Census of 1985-86 and the Fifth Agricultural
Census of 1990-91.
Holding and Land Use
agricultural census data of 1985-86 and that of 1990-91 indicate a changing
profile of holding. Marginal holding (below 1.0ha) declined by 18.5%,
small holding (1-2ha) by 7.0% but semi-medium (2-4ha) increased by 3.2%,
medium ones (4-10ha) increased by 28.8%, and large holding (10ha &
above) increased by 148.3% between the period under study.
area of operational holding of the State under each category of land use
with their respective percentage in 1985-86 and 1990-91 clearly indicates
a decline in net sown area (from 85.3 to 79.17%), current fallow area
(from1.2 to 1.8%) and net cultivated area (from 86.5 to 80.9%). During
the same period total uncultivated land area increased in terms of percentage
from 3.6% to 9.9%.
The Economic Review, Tripura for the year 1999-2000, (P-35) also provided a different and changing profile of land use. It is noted that the net sown area of the state was increased to 281,000 ha. in 1998-1999 but declined to 279,000 ha. in 1999-2000 but even then it shows a significant rise from the figure of 270,913 (1985-1986) and 243,950 (1990-1991) [vide Table 48].
Table-48 : Land Use
The cropping pattern has been changed drastically with food crops occupying 96.36% leaving only 3.64% for non-food crop area.
agricultural census data of 1985-86 and 1990-91 also provide an insight
into the percentage of wholly irrigated, partly irrigated, wholly unirrigated,
net irrigated and net unirrigated land area and percentage in terms of
total sown area. While only 2.1% of total sown area were wholly irrigated
in 1985-86 a marginal increase to 3.6% is noted in 1990-91. For partly
irrigated sown area, the corresponding figure changed significantly from
4.1% to 10.5%. It is to be noted that while in 1985-86, wholly unirrigated
sown area was 93.5%, the figure declined to 85.8% in 199-91. The net irrigated
area increased from 4.2 to 7.7% during the same period.
source of irrigation may be canal, tank, well, tube well or others. Canal
irrigation shows a nearly doubled the area in terms of increase of coverage
from 13.9% to 25.2% during 1985-86 to 1990-91. For tank irrigation, the
corresponding figure changed from 2.5% to 10.8%. Total net irrigated area
shows an increase from 11291 ha to 18858ha during the same period under
study; however the bulk irrigation is provided by a combination of systemic
from other sources (82.6% in 1985-86 to 55.1% in 1990-91). The intensity
of irrigated crop area is calculated at 1.605 (Ref State Report on Agricultural
It is also projected that of the total of 2,79,000 ha. of cultivable land, 1,77,000 ha. could be irrigated from surface water (79,000 ha.) and ground water (38,000 ha.) sources. The target to provide assured irrigation water to the entire command area is fixed at 2010 AD.
census data clearly indicates that cereal growing area of the State extends
over 69.5% of the total area under cultivation while pulses are grown
only in 0.8% of land. Next to cereals, of which 69.3% out of 69.5% is
occupied by Rice cultivation, the fiber crops specially Jute and Mesta
occupy 9.6% of the cultivated area. This is followed by Fruits (6.8%)
and Vegetables (4.1%), etc. The total food crop area occupies 70.3% of
the area, total non fruit crop area remains limited to only 17%. Besides
Rice, Jute, Mesta fruits and vegetables, sugarcane (0.4%) and oilseeds
(1.3%) are other crops grown in agricultural field of the State (Table-49)
(Ref.: State Report on Agricultural Census, 1990-91, Tripura, p.-52).
in Tripura 1990-91
49 B: Cropping Pattern 1990-1991 and 1999-2000
fertilizers used in Tripura include Super Phosphate, Urea, Die-ammonium
Phosphate, Murate of Potash and mixed fertilizer.
foregoing account largely reflects the agricultural scenario during 1980-1990
period. Most recent data available from Department of Agriculture show
a significant trend of change in terms of area covered under different
crops. The rice growing area has increased from 206022 ha of 1990-91 to
232160 ha in 1999-2000 (11.25%). The wheat growing area extended from
206 ha in 1990-91 to 1250 ha in 1999-2000 (506.79%). While total pulses
covered only 2336 ha in 1990-91, it has more than doubled to 6390 ha in
10 years. A detailed district wise account of crop and area under cultivation
is given in Table-50.
under Cultivation in ha. (1999-2000)
irrigated area covering different crops also extended from 18,858ha (7.7%)
to 50333ha nearly tripling the area in 10 years. The details of different
crops under irrigation (partly or wholly) is given in Table-51.
Area under different Crops (in ha) 1999-2000
consumption pattern of NPK fertilizer during 1999-2000 in four district
of Tripura is given in Table-52:
of Chemical fertilizers (in M.T.) (1999-2000)
Dept. of Agriculture, Govt. of Tripura, 2001]
data on detailed categories of pesticides e.g. organochlorine, organophosphate,
others is not available. But the available data reveal use of 17.382 metric
tonnes of pesticides during 1999-2000 for agricultural fields in Tripura
in 272855 ha i.e. 64 gm/ha of pesticides per ha had been used in the State
Consumption (in MT Tech. Grade) (1999-2000)
District wise consumption of Plant Protection
Material & Tech. Grade during 2000-2001
Table- 55 : Consumption of Plant Protection Chemical (Item wise)
in kg per ha (1999-2000)
* = 180 kg/ha; ** = 170kg/ha]
An increasing trend of the use of high yielding varieties of seeds for rice and wheat can be noted in all the district of Tripura. Of the total rice growing area of 232160 ha., 86% or 201760 ha. is occupied by high yielding varieties. Of the four district, the West district shows a figure of 92% followed by South district (88%), North district (79%) and Dhalai district (70%). In case of wheat, entire area of 1250 ha. in the state is occupied by high yielding varieties. No separate effort for on-farm conservation of indigenous/folk rice varieties is noted. This is absolutely essential for conservation of gene-pool and free exchange of seeds between farmers of the state.
The state has a long tradition of growing horticultural crops. Recent data clearly denotes the enormous potential of horticultural crops (Table:-57) showing significant rise in term of area coverage and production.
Table-57 : Decadal changes of Horticultural Crops
Source: Economic Review, Tripura, 1999-2000.
the plantation crops in Tripura, Rubber, introduced by the Forest Department
in 1963 has taken the place of pride. Currently approximately 23,000 ha.,
land are under natural rubber plantation in Tripura spread of four districts.
The West Tripura district has 9,953 ha., in 320 villages, followed by
South Tripura- 8,246 ha., in 114 village areas, North Tripura- 3,594 ha.,
in 60 village areas and Dhalai district-1,141 ha., in 38 village areas.
The production data as per 1999-2000 Economic Review stands at 6346 mt,
valued at Rs. 1649 lakh. Tripura is the second largest rubber producing
state in India after Kerala.
potential of extending Rubber production area, according to survey report
of National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning in recent year,
shows as 1.0 lakh hectare or 10 percent of the total geographical area
of the State; it shows therefore a scope for 4 fold increase.
Environmental Impact Assessment has been carried out on the changing land
use and land cover pattern due to suggested expansion of rubber plantation.
The possible impact should be studied on soil, forest resource change,
biodiversity and hydrology.
raw rubber is being sent out for value addition. A proposal is in the
offing for value added product of rubber to be manufactured within the
plantation in the State is reportedly facing serious crisis due to insurgency
problem. No recent data on the area under tea, number of operational garden,
annual production and total value of the production is available. However,
the last available data of 1994 and 1995 data shows that, the State has
55 tea gardens covering an area of 6433.08 ha. The production as per 1995
data stands at 49,25,053 kg (both Black and Green tea) and number of workers
working in that period was 10,576 daily on an average. Table-58 shows
the district wise number of gardens, production during the year of 1995.
District wise number of gardens, production
Soil Fertility and Agriculture
An ICAR report shows that soils under shifting cultivation sites, a gradual decline in soil pH, organic carbon, CEC, available NPK and exchangeable Ca and Mg within a three year cycle (M. Datta et.al. 1995). Water holding capacity also decreased in the shifting cultivation areas. Available nitrogen though declined over the shifting cycle was however not in the deficient range.
The livestock populations include Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Pig; the impact of grazing on the forest ecosystem can be correlated with the increase or decline of livestock, specially Cattle and Buffalo. The available data for three quinquennial census shows a distinct upward trend (Table-59). No recent quantified data on milk yield, meat yield vis-ŕ-vis the number of livestock is available. The last data available for milk production shows an increase from 25,000 t (1986-87) to 39,000 t in 1995-96.
Table- 59 : Livestock and Poultry population according to Livestock Census 1997 in Tripura
The poultry population- Duck and Fowl-likewise shows a remarkable growth rate, almost doubling in 10 years period (Table-60)
Table-60: Comparative Livestock and Poultry population as per last three quinquennial Livestock and Poultry Census
[Source : Directorate of Animal Resource Development]
Of all the districts of Tripura, West District seems to be most richly endowed with domesticated animal resources.
The number of breeding farms for cattle, Pig and Poultry farms have increased by three times between 1990-91 and 1998-99, with the highest number being in the West District (Table-61).
Table - 61: Breeding farms in Tripura
[Source : Directorate of Animal Resource Development, 1999]
No data was available on the census of domesticated breeds of animals in the State, which is deemed essential for conservation of animal genetic resources. However a ratio of total crossbreed and indigenous varieties of Cattle, Buffalo and Pigs for the years 1982, 1987 and 1992 could be seen in Table-62.
Table – 62 : Indigenous & Cross Breed Domesticated animal resource
Note : * Indigenous and Cross Breed not differentiated
[Source: State Animal Husbandry Department, Govt. of Tripura]
The above table shows that indigenous varieties distinctly outnumber the population of crossbreed varieties during 1982, 1987, 1992 census.
The inland water area of Tripura and its biological resources has been dealt under “Biodiversity”. The available data for 1990-91to 1998-99 shows marginal increase of commercial fishing from 21,100 mt in 1990-91 to 23,764 mt in 1998-99. The subsistence fishing data however shows remarkable changes from 95 mt in 1990-91 to 3325 mt in 1998-99 (Table-63).
Table-63: Production of fish in Tripura
Excluding subsistence fish,
2. Catch of
fish by non-professional.
3. Within parenthesis, data is
based on 1999-2000.
Superintendent Engineer, Water Resource, Govt. of Tripura]
The area under fish culture is currently estimated at 22.921 ha with 29,340 mt production in 2000 AD. During 2000 AD, 1,04,952 fish seeds were produced. A total of 128 Fishermen Cooperative Societies are operating in the State.
District wise fisheries production data when analyzed, shows, that South District tops the list followed by West, North and the Dhalai districts.
The fishery potentials of the State needs an in depth study both in terms of capture fisheries and Culture fisheries. No data is available for Shell fisheries.