Waste Management
State of Environment Report of Tripura for the year of 2002

 

16.0 Solid Waste Management:

The state has no masterplan for solid waste management even in major urban centers including the capital city of Agartala. According to the Agartala Municipal Council, about 90-95 metric tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of which approximately 50-60 metric tonnes are collected through NGO collaboration and dumped in Haphama Dumping Ground in form of sanitary land filling. In a recently held meeting (August 2001), Agartala Municipal Council has proposed improvement of the same through additional deployment of dumper, dozar, payloader and house to house collection, besides cleaning up of major roads and 10 markets, at a cost of nearly Rs. 453.0 lakh. A local NGO has also proposed to undertake work for conversion of organic wastes into compost, vermicomposting, pelletization etc. No final decision has been taken.

16.1 Biomedical Waste:

Biomedical waste means any waste, which generated during diagnosis, treatment, and immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities or in the production or testing of biologicals. Waste generation in hospitals and their disposal has always been a matter of concern to the medical profession.

Health care wastes are produced in hospitals, health centers, clinics, nursing homes, pathological laboratories, research institutions, veterinary clinics, midwifery centers and other medical cares conducted at home. The amount of wastes generated varies according to type of facilities. The total quantum of biomedical waste can be categorized into:

1.            Infectious and hazardous waste

·        Infectious sharp

·      Infectious non-sharp

·    Pathological

 2.   Non-Infectious and non-hazardous waste

Segregation of the first two categories of waste at source is the first and foremost step in waste management. The infectious and hazardous waste mixed with the non-hazardous general ones multiplies problem in handling at final disposal. Handling the sharps is extremely critical. It calls for separate attention from other disposables in a waste management scheme.

Inventory of Health Care Establishments in Tripura:

Biomedical wastes are being generated from the following Health Care Establishments (HCEs) in Tripura:

  1.      Government hospitals & dispensaries 2.      Defense/Police hospitals 3.      Private nursing homes 4.      Pathological laboratories

5.      Homoeopathic hospitals/dispensaries 6.      Veterinary hospitals and dispensaries 7.      Artificial Insemination Centers (AIC)

8.   Disease investigation laboratories

The district wise inventory of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) in Tripura is given in Table-109.

Table-109 : District wise inventory of Health Care Establishment in Tripura

 

Health Care Establishments

District name

Total

West

South

North

Dhalai

Government hospitals & dispensaries

 

State hospitals

 

District hospitals

 

Sub-division hospitals

 

Rural hospitals

 

Primary Health Centers

 

 

4

 

--

 

3

 

4

 

15

 

 

--

 

1

 

3

 

3

 

18

 

 

--

 

1

 

2

 

2

 

18

 

 

--

 

--

 

3

 

--

 

11

 

 

4

 

2

 

11

 

9

 

62

 

West

South

North

Dhalai

 

Subtotal

26

25

23

14

88

Defense/Police hospitals

 

BSF hospitals

 

Army hospitals

 

Police hospitals

 

Dispensaries of Army, Assam Rifles, TSR, CRPF, BSF

 

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

28

 

 

 

--

 

--

 

--

 

7

 

 

--

 

--

 

--

 

5

 

 

--

 

--

 

--

 

3

 

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

43

 

Subtotal

31

7

5

3

46

Private nursing homes

10

--

--

--

10

Pathological laboratories

36

26

15

11

88

Homoeopathic hospitals/dispensaries

 

State hospitals

 

Dispensaries

 

Sub centers

 

 

1

 

26

 

9

 

 

--

 

16

 

5

 

 

--

 

4

 

2

 

 

--

 

3

 

2

 

 

1

 

49

 

18

Subtotal

36

21

6

5

68

Animal Health Care Establishments

 

Veterinary hospitals

 

Veterinary dispensaries

 

Veterinary sub centers

 

Artificial Insemination Centers (AIC)

 

Disease investigation laboratories

 

Animal stock where AI is done

 

Proposed vaccine production center (for the year 2001)

 

 

3

 

20

 

93

 

4

 

1

 

50

 

1

 

 

 

3

 

17

 

58

 

5

 

1

 

26

 

--

 

 

2

 

10

 

43

 

2

 

1

 

23

 

--

 

 

2

 

6

 

25

 

1

 

--

 

9

 

--

 

 

 

10

 

53

 

219

 

12

 

3

 

108

 

1

 

Subtotal

172

110

81

43

406

Grand total

707

 

[Source: Directorate of Health, Govt. Of Tripura, 2001].

 

The treatment capacity of different Health Care Establishments in Tripura:

The total bed capacity in different Health Care Establishments in Tripura is given in Table 110.

Table –110 : Bed capacity of different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

 

Health Care Establishments

Number

Bed capacity

Total

 

 

West

South

North

Dhalai

 

State hospitals

4

1054

--

--

--

1054

District hospitals

2

--

150

150

--

300

Sub-division hospitals

11

205

150

60

100

515

Rural hospitals

9

120

80

60

--

260

Defense/Police hospitals

3

87

--

--

--

87

Homoeopathic hospitals

1

20

--

--

--

20

Private nursing homes

10

130

--

--

--

130

Total

2366

  In case of animal health care, as per Directorate of Animal Resource & Development, following statistical figures (Table-111) are reported in all over Tripura:

  Table –111 : Statistical figure for animal health care

Total case treated (avg.)

1,26,497 per year

 

27,483 per month

Total vaccination (FMD) given

86,844 for progressive period

 

33,405 per month

Vaccination other than FMD

23,933 for progressive period

Total Artificial Insemination done

22,097 for progressive period

  Quantification of biomedical waste in Tripura:

Based on the waste audit carried out in representative hospitals, nursing homes, pathological laboratories and using specific waste generation factor evolved from them, the total quantum of solid biomedical waste (which includes organic waste) generated in Tripura is found to be 1573.2 Kg/day. In addition, 136 m3 of wastewater per day is generated from them. Out of this the quantity of organic waste is about 810 Kg/day. Table 4 gives the quantity of waste generated in different Health Care Establishments. This study is based on a recent report submitted by National Productivity Council, New Delhi to the State Pollution Control Board, Tripura.

Table 112: Total quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

 

Waste categories

Quantity in Kg/day

State hospitals

District hospitals

Sub-division hospitals

Rural hospitals

Primary Health Center

Nursing homes

Pathological laboratories

Homoeopathic hospitals

Defense/

Police hospitals

Total

Human anatomical waste, blood & body parts

19.3

--

--

--

--

2.5

--

--

--

21.8

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

2.1

0.3

--

--

--

--

2

--

--

4.4

Waste scraps

3.6

4

Neg

Neg

Neg

7

10

--

2.3

26.9

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

180

24

5

3.2

4.1

10

20

38.5

27.9

312.7

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

115.7

50

54

26.3

42.6

25.5

30

--

12.3

356.4

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Organic waste and paper contaminated with other biomedical waste

410

77

128

63

101.5

30

Neg

--

41.5

851

Total

730.7

155.3

187

92.5

148.2

75

62

38.5

84

1573.2

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/day)

66

16

11

5

8

5

20

--

5

136

 

From Animal Health Care Centers, the total quantum of biomedical waste generated is 298709.3 Kg/year and about 7800 m3/year of liquid waste is generated from the same, as shown in Table 113.

 Table –113 : Total quantity of biomedical waste generated from different Animal Health Care Centers in Tripura

Waste

Quantity in Kg/year

Veterinary hospitals

Veterinary dispensaries

Veterinary sub-centers

Artificial Insemination Centers

Disease Investigation Laboratories

Animal stock where AI is done

Total

Animal & slaughter house wastes (generated by veterinary hospitals, colleges, animal house and livestock farms)

756

--

--

--

9000

--

9756

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

--

--

--

--

10

--

10

Waste scraps

21

27

57.8

--

--

--

105.8

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

1890

500

11550

--

--

--

13940

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

756

445

4735.5

--

122

--

6058.5

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Total

3423

972

16343.3

--

9132

--

29870.3

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/day)

--

--

--

2400

--

5400

7800

 

On the basis of the above data, the quantity of biomedical waste expected to be generated per bed, per day in the Health Care Establishments in Tripura, has been calculated and is shown in (Table –114).

Currently, there is no appropriate system for disposal of biomedical waste. Joint meetings with CPCB, TSPCB, local authorities, Urban Development Department, Health Department and nursing homes have already been organized. Member Secretary, TSPCB as the Prescribed Authority and has constituted an Advisory Committee in the State under Biomedical Waste Rule. For effective implementation of the rules, TSPCB is closely interacting with AMC, nursing homes and Health Department. According to TSPCB, an action plan for inventorisation of hospital waste and for setting up of facilities for proper disposal of biomedical waste has been taken.

 

16.2 Hazardous Waste Management

A large variety of synthetic chemicals are used daily for different application for the benefit of human society. Chemicals like petroleum fuels, antibiotics and other drugs, plastics, food preservatives, agricultural fertilizers, pesticides etc. are entangled with our life. About 1,00,000 chemicals are estimated to be in daily use and of these, approximately 7000 are produced commercially in large quantities. Most of them have little or severe adverse effect on environment. Some of them are fatal in respect of human and animal health as well as to natural environment. These effects may be acute or chronic i.e. they become visible after short exposure or may be visualized after wide and prolonged usage.

Hazardous wastes management has become an important environmental and public health issue and concern with the ever-growing evidence of the serious consequences of indiscriminate disposal. The control and management of hazardous waste should draw a high level of public interest and socio-economic and political forces must play a major role in the control of environmental hazards.

The Government of India has notified necessary rules for handling and management of hazardous waste in 1989, amended in 2000. However, the handling and management of lead acid batteries has to be governed by the Batteries (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000.

Inventorisation of hazardous waste generation in Tripura

Due to lack of infrastructure and communication, Tripura is still an industrially backward state. The main livelihood of this state is agriculture. Most of the production units in Tripura are small-scale in nature and most of them do not available the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Therefore, inventorisation of hazardous waste for this state can only be done on the basis of medium-scale and large-scale industrial units. Based on the available information an inventory of hazardous waste generating units has been prepared by the National Productivity Council in 2001.

Estimation of Industries

As per the Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura, there are four medium-scale projects are recorded presently:

  • Bowry Plywood (North Tripura)
  • Neramac Fruit Juice Concentrate Plant (North Tripura)
  • Tea Factories (West Tripura)
  • Jute Mills (West Tripura)

Apart from this, there are two large thermal power plants are now start operation. They are:

  1.    Barmora Gas Thermal Project, and 2.   Rukia Gas Thermal Project

The Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura recorded the presence of about 4724 small-scale registered industrial units in the state. According to 1999-updated information, there are about 2837 small-scale units located in the state. However, no information is available with any organizations/agencies about the actual number of operating industrial units in Tripura.

Industrial Authorities 

In respect to industries existing in Tripura, the following departments and industrial associations are involved:

  •   Directorate of Industries, Government of Tripura
  •   Factories and Boilers Organization
  •   Tripura Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.
  •   Tripura Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  •   Federation of Association of Cottage and Small Industries (FACSI), Tripura
  •   Directorate of Handloom and Handicrafts, Government of Tripura
  •   Tripura Handloom and Handicrafts Development Corporation Ltd.
  •   Rubber Board, Government of India

Location of the Industrial Estates

Most of the small-scale units are randomly located. They are either located on roadside or in the thickly populated residential and commercial places. Rests of the industries are located in five designated industrial estates namely:

  •       Arundhutinagar Industrial Estates
  •        Badarghat Industrial Estates
  •        Dhajanagar Industrial Estates
  •        Kumarghat Industrial Estates
  •        Dharmanagar Industrial Estates

  Hazardous Waste Generating Sectors

Based on product manufactured and industrial process used, the following sectors have been identified as hazardous waste generating sectors conforming to Schedule I and II of Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Amendment Rule, 2000:

 

  •     Drug intermediate (Diosgene) producing units
  •     Pharmaceuticals
  •    Latex producing units
  •     Lead acid batteries reconditioning
  • Printing press
  •     Photo printing
  •     Leather tanning
  •    Textile and handloom dying and printing
  •    Aluminium product with melting facility
  •   Timber processing

11.  Repairing and servicing of automobiles

 

Industrial sector & district wise distribution of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs)

Based on the information available with Tripura State pollution Control Board (TSPCB), NPC’s past experience, discussion with various departments, industrial associations, industrial units and during field visits inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs) located in four districts of Tripura has been prepared. The district and sector wise distribution of hazardous waste generating units is given in Table-115.

Quantification of hazardous waste in Tripura

The quantum of hazardous wastes generated by different industrial units in the districts and industrial sectors of Tripura is given in Table-116. 

Highest quantum of hazardous waste i.e. 88,000 m3/year is generated from processing of latex, which is highly bio-degradable and having the potential of CH4 gas generation provided latex processing is in organized way. Out of total 88,000 m3/year, 67 % is generated from West district only and balance 33 % is spread in remaining three districts.

About 0.8 MT/year of waste developing and fixer residue is generated from photo printing units in Tripura which is a smaller quantity. This is at present being drained to the municipal drains. However some units claim that they generally collect them in a drain and then send them to Assam for recovery of silver from it.

About 240 MT of spent acid is being generated per year from lead acid battery reconditioning process which is presently being discharged into municipal drains from all the small shops of battery reconditioning spread all over Tripura. The waste has to be neutralized and the lead has to be removed before discharge. In addition approximately 1200 MT of lead scrap is generated which is presently being sold out to traders for reclamation of lead outside Tripura.

About 198 MT of oil containing sludge and about 13.2 MT of cloth contaminated with oil are being generated per year from repairing & servicing of automobile The oil containing sludge is presently being sold out while cloth contaminated will oil is being burnt. The small shops for repairing of automobiles are spread all over the Tripura.

There are cluster of textile & handloom weaving units spread in West district of Tripura. However, dyeing of cotton yarns & printing of textile (bed sheets) is been carried out in co-operative societies only. The azo- dyes are being used for dyeing and printing. The wastewater containing spent dyes is being discharged into ground water without any treatment through digging the wells right up to aquifer. However, it is estimated that after installation of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) about 4.3 MT of sludge containing dyes will be generated per year at existing capacity of dyeing & printing.

There is only one tannery unit in West district of Tripura, which is not having any wastewater treatment plant. However, it is estimated that after installation of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), about 159 MT of sludge containing chromium will be generated per year at existing capacity of tanning i.e. 20,000 skins per month. Remaining hazardous wastes are in very small quantity.

In summary, it is apparent that at present no proper systems of hazardous waste management exist in the state of Tripura. However, it is expected that an appropriate management programme will be initiated by the Government of Tripura, based on the finding and recommendations of National Productivity Council, New Delhi.

Table -114 : Quantity of biomedical waste generated per bed per day from different Health Care Establishments in Tripura

 

Waste categories

Quantity in Kg/bed/day

 

State hospitals

District hospitals

Sub-division hospitals

Rural hospitals

Nursing homes

Homoeopathic hospitals

Defense/

Police hospitals

Total

Human anatomical waste, blood & body parts

0.018

--

--

--

0.019

 

--

--

0.037

Microbiological & biotechnological waste

0.002

0.001

--

--

--

--

--

0.003

Waste scraps

0.003

0.013

Neg

Neg

0.053

--

0.026

0.095

Discarded medicines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Solid wastes (generated from soiled cotton, dressings, plaster castes, lines, beddings, materials contaminated with blood including the packaging materials)

0.17

0.08

0.009

0.012

0.076

1.925

0.321

2.593

Disposables generated from disposable items other than the waste scraps

0.109

0.167

0.105

0.101

0.196

--

0.141

0.819

Chemical wastes

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

Organic waste and paper contaminated with other biomedical waste

0.389

0.257

0.248

0.242

0.231

--

0.477

1.844

Total

0.691

0.518

0.362

0.355

0.575

1.925

0.965

5.391

Liquid waste generated from laboratory and washing, cleaning, housekeeping and disinfecting activities (in m3/bed/day)

0.062

0.053

0.021

0.019

0.038

--

0.057

0.25

 

Table-115 : Industrial sector & district wise distribution of Hazardous Waste Generating Units (HWGUs) in Tripura

Industrial Sectors

Districts of Tripura State

 

Total no. of units

Waste Type

 

West Tripura

South Tripura

North Tripura

Dhalai

 

 

Drug intermediate (Diosgene) producing units

1

--

--

--

1

Different process recidues

Pharmaceuticals

5

--

--

--

5

Different process recidues

Latex producing units

12

7

8

4

31

Non-emulsified latex residue & wastewater

Lead acid batteries reconditioning

60

25

10

5

100

Spent H2SO4, exhauted lead plates with PVC seperators

Small printing press

60

14

13

6

93

Paper cloth containing printing ink residue, Lead letters

Government printing press

1

--

--

--

1

same as above

Newsprint (Letter printing)

29

--

--

--

29

same as above

Newspaper print (offset)

9

--

--

--

9

same as above

Photo printing

15

10

5

5

40

Different photochemicals

Leather tanning

1

--

--

--

1

ETP sludge contaminated with Chromium

Textile and handloom dying and printing

7

--

--

--

7

ETP sludge from wastewater treatment

Aluminium product with melting facility

2

--

--

--

2

Aluminium slag

Timber processing

1

--

--

--

1

Spent wood preservatives

Repairing and servicing of automobiles

80

19

33

10

142

Spent oil, oil emulsion, cloths contaminated with oil

 

 

 

 

Total

462

 

 

[Source: Environment div. National Productivity Council, 2001]

Table-116 : District and sector wise quantification of hazardous waste generation in Tripura

 

Industrial sector Waste type
Quantity in MT/year
 

 

 

West

South

North

Dhalai

Total

Lead acid battery reconditioning

Spent acid

144

60

24

12

240

 

Lead scrape

720

300

120

60

1200

Printing press

Paper cloth containing printing ink residue

9

2

1

0.9

14.1

 

Lead letter

0.42

0.09

0.09

0.04

0.06

Newspaper print

Developer residue

0.5

--

--

--

0.5

 

Fixer residue

0.5

--

--

--

0.5

Photo printing

Developer residue

0.18

0.12

0.06

0.06

0.42

 

Fixer residue

0.18

0.12

0.06

0.06

0.42

Leather tanning

ETP sludge contaminated with chromium

159

--

--

--

159

Textile and handloom dying

ETP sludge from wastewater treatment

4.3

--

--

--

4.3

Aluminium product with melting facility

Alumunium sludge

18

--

--

--

18

Pharmaceuticals

Process residue

0.04

--

--

--

0.04

Use and production of latex

Latex emulsion residue (wastewater)

52800 m3/year

13200 m3/year

13200 m3/year

8800 m3/year

88000 m3/year

Timber treatment

Residue from the use of the wood preservatives

0.024

--

--

--

0.024

Drugs intermediate production

Distillation residue

0.05

--

--

--

0.05

Repairing and servicing of automobiles

Oil containing sludge and oil emulsion

112

26

46

14

198

 

Cloths contaminated with oil

7.4

1.7

3

0.9

13.2

  [Source: Environment div. National Productivity Council, 2001]

 
top