People
State of Environment Report of Tripura for the year of 2002

 The multiethnic population of the state shows a steady increase between 1901-2001, from a total of only 1,73,325 (1901) to 31,91,168 (2001) indicating a growth rate of nearly 18x in 100 years as against little over 3.5x for India (Table-77). During the period an uneven growth pattern could be seen during different decadal changes with as low as 15.74% (1991-2001) to as high as 78% during the decadal period of 1951-1961 (Table-78 & 79). The total land area of Tripura is only 0.4% of the total Indian geographical area which is now inhabited by 4.3% of Indian population. Such man land ratio obviously led to significant pressure on natural resources.  Sex ratio calculated by number of female for 1000 male stands at 945 as against national figure of 933. Of the total population of Tripura in 1991, 451,116 persons belong to schedule caste and 853,345 persons belong to schedule tribe, thereby making a total of 13,04461 persons of SC & ST categories, representing little more than 47 percent of the population of State (Table-81), the national figure for the same stands at only 10.3 percent (Figures for 2001 are not yet available).

An analysis of rural and urban population (1991) including sex ratio reveal that while 51.90% of total population are male as against 48.10% of females with a sex ratio of 10.00 : 9.26, the urban male and females ratio stand at 10.00 : 8.93 and rural sex ratio stands at 10.00 : 9.38 at national level (Table-80). The urban male population of Tripura (1991) is estimated at 51.07% as against female population at 48.93% thereby making the sex ration of 10.00 : 8.93; even for rural sex ratio, Tripura scores little higher than national average of 10.00 : 9.83.

It is also to be noted that of the total population of the state, more than 18 percent belong to the age group of 0-6, as per 1991 census report (Table-82); this is decidedly higher than national average of 16 percent, thereby representing a higher percentage of young population by 2010 looking for employment opportunities.


Table-77 : Overall Population Status in the State and India

 

 

 

 

Tripura

India

1.

Population

Persons

3191168

1027015247

Males

1636138

531277078

Females

1555030

495738169

2.

Decadal Growth

1981-1991

34.30

23.86

1991-2001

15.74

21.34

3.

Density

1991

263

267

2001

304

324

4.

Sex Ratio

1991

945

927

2001

950

933

5.

Literacy 2001

Persons

73.66

65.38

Males

81.47

75.85

Females

65.41

54.16

  Table -78 : Population Distribution, Percentage decadal growth rate, Sex-ratio Population density Literacy rate for State and Districts

 

S. No.

State/district

Population 2001

Percentage decadal growth rate

Sex-ratio (No. of females per 1000 males)

Population density/sq.km

Literacy rate

Persons

Males

Females

1981-91

1991-01

1991

2001

1991

2001

1991

2001

 

Tripura

3191168

1636138

1555030

34.30

15.74

945

950

263

304

49.65

65.41

1.

West Tripura

1530531

783825

746706

32.53

18.29

944

953

427

505

55.15

70.24

2.

South Tripura

762565

391179

371386

40.30

7.44

951

949

229

243

39.75

60.75

3.

Dhalai

307417

158480

148937

33.69

10.79

931

940

125

139

NA

51.57

4.

North Tripura

590655

302654

288001

30.86

26.44

943

952

222

281

50.31

65.73

 

Table- 79 : Growth in Total, Rural, and Urban Population (1901-2001)

 

Census year

Total Population

Rural Population

Urban Population

Total

Percentage

Total

Percentage

1901

173325

166910

96.30

6415

3.70

1911

229613

222782

97.02

6831

2.98

1921

304437

296694

97.46

7743

2.54

1931

382450

372870

97.50

9580

2.50

1941

513010

495317

96.55

17693

3.45

1951

639029

596343

93.30

42595

6.70

1961

1142005

1039008

90.98

102997

9.02

1971

1556342

1393982

89.57

162360

10.43

1981

2053058

1827490

89.00

225568

11.00

1991

2757205

2335484

84.70

421721

15.30

2001*

3191168

2648074

82.98

543094

17.02

  [Source: Anon. 1993. Final Population Totals. Brief Analysis of Primary Census, Series-1, Paper-2 of 1992. Register General of Census Commissioner, Census of India, Govt. of India; * = Provisional Figure]

Table – 80 : Total, Rural, Urban Population including Sex ratio (1991)

 

 

Population

Male

Female

Sex Ratio

Census Year 1991

Total

2757205

1417930 (51.42%)

1339275 (48.58%)

945

Rural

2335484

1202529 (51.48%)

1132995 (48.52%)

942

Urban

421721

215410 (51.08%)

206320 (48.92%)

958

Census Year 2001

Total

3191168

1636138 (51.27%)

1555030 (48.73%)

950

Rural

2648074

1359288 (51.33%)

1288786 (48.67%)

948

Urban

543094

276850 (50.98%)

266244 (49.02%)

961

 


[Source: Source: Anon. 1993. Final Population Totals. Census India, Series-1, Paper-2 of 1992. Register General of Census Commissioner, Census of India, Govt. of India & Census of India, Govt. of India, 2001]

Table-81 : Schedule Caste & Schedule Tribe population (1991)

 

 

Schedule Caste

Schedule Tribe

Male

Female

Male

Female

Total

5414599

5297667

293012

281182

Rural

4259370

4168670

257853

247355

Urban

1155229

1128997

35159

33827

[Source : Anon. 1993. Final Population totals. Census of India. Series 1, Paper 2 of 1992 p.190-197]


  Table- 82 : Total Population & sex ratio in the age group of 0-6 years

 

Combined

Male

Female

Sex Ratio

Census Year 1991

Total

497122

252724

244398

967

Rural

440461

223798

216663

968

Urban

56661

28926

27735

959

Census Year 2001

Total

427012

216244

210768

975

Rural

376018

190067

185951

978

Urban

50994

26177

24817

948

[Source: Anon. 1993. Final Population totals. Census of India. Series 1, Vol.11, Part 11 B(1)]


                                   

Table-83 : State wise Projected Urban Population : 1996-2016 (1000)

Year

Male

Female

Total

1996

278

274

552

2001

350

360

710

2006

433

461

894

2011

521

569

1090

2016

608

676

1284

[Source: Anon. 1991. Population Projection for India and States, 1996-2016. Register General of India, Census of India, Govt. of India, New Delhi]

The demographic analysis shows that of the total of 858517 workers, majority (736677) belong to rural sector while only 121998 belong to urban workers’ class. The male-female ratio of main workers also show a highly disproportionate picture with 674,184 male workers as against 184333 and such disparities are evident in both Rural and Urban sectors but being higher in the rural sectors. In case of marginal workers, however, female workers take majority share with 54579 out of 56654 total marginal workers and rural sector employment as many as 47342 of the total female marginal workers. The high rate of unemployment is evident in the figures of total non-workers 1898688 of which 1154942 are females, majority being from rural sector (967753) (Table-84).

The foregoing population profile in terms of total number, decadal changes, distribution in urban-rural segment, sex ratio and employment can further be extended to the issue of population and poverty.

Table –84 : Economic activity : Total workers & non-workers/sex/urban/rural sector

 

 

Total Number of Workers

Number of Main workers

Number of Marginal workers

Non workers

 

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

858517

674184

184333

802063

666287

135776

56454

7897

48557

1898688

743796

1154952

Rural

736677

571475

165202

682098

564238

117860

54379

7237

47342

1598087

631054

967753

Urban

121840

102709

191131

119865

102049

17916

1875

660

1215

299881

112692

187189

[Anon. 1993. Final Population totals. Series 1, paper 2 of 1992. P. 106-113. Census of India]

 

Since, poverty and increasing population are considered as prime driving forces for degradation of natural resources, a look at the same area can be given. The figures showing people below poverty line as per 1993-94 data indicate that as many as 11.41 lakh people or 45.01 percent of rural population live below the poverty line; while in urban sector the respective figure stands at 0,38 lakhs or 7.73%; the combined figure therefore stands at 11.79 lakhs people or 39.01% of the population living below the poverty line (Table-85). However the State Government of Tripura provided a figure of 66.81% of rural families living below the poverty line (Table-86).

Table -85 : Population below Poverty Line

 

Rural

Urban

Combined

Number (Lakh)

Percentage

Number (Lakh)

Percentage

Number (Lakh)

Percentage

Tripura

11.41

45.01

0.38

7.73

11.79

39.01*

India

-

37.27

-

32.36

-

35.97

 


[Source: Anon. 1998. Estimation of Poverty, p. 14, Planning Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi * = according to the Govt. of Tripura the figures stands at 66.81% ]

Table –86 : Families Below Poverty Line in the State

Name of the District

No. of Rural Families

No. of Rural of families living BPL

Percentage of families living BPL

West Tripura

277294

174763

63.02%

North Tripura

104802

68334

65.20%

South Tripura

148181

108214

73.02%

Dhalai

65120

46487

71.38%

Total

595397

397798

66.81%

 [Source: Govt. of Tripura]


Population on the March

The Central Statistical Organisation in a report dated 1999 (Selected Socio-Economic Statistics, India 1999) provided a likely population growth for Tripura between 1991 and 1999 (in million) projecting a figure of 3.7 million in 1999 (Table-87).

Table-87: Population on the March

Year

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

Population

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

It shows a steady growth of population at 0.10 million per year. Actually the provisional data of 2001 Census shows a figure of nearly 3.2 million thereby making the above projection invalid.The census data of 1951 to 1991 when analysed show a steady increase of density of population from 61 person per sq. km (1951) to 304 person per sq. km (2001) i.e. more than 5.0x in 50 years.

A total of 19 tribal groups form an important component of people of Tripura. Out of 19 Schedule Tribes Tripuri, Riang, Jamatia, Chakma and Halam tribes occupy the first five position Table-88

Table-88 : Tribal population by Tribes, percentage of total population and male/ female (1981 census)

 

Sl. No.

Tribes

Total

Percentage

Male

Female

1.

Bill

838

0.40

450

388

2.

Bhutia

22

0.00

14

8

3.

Chaimal

18

0.00

11

7

4.

Chakma

34799

1.69

17966

16833

5.

Garo

7297

0.36

3632

3665

6.

Halam

28969

1.41

14666

14303

7.

Jamatia

44501

2.17

22368

22133

8.

Khasia

457

0.02

235

222

9.

Kuki

5501

0.87

3831

2970

10.

Lepcha

106

0.01

49

7

11.

Lushai

3734

0.18

1936

1798

12.

Naga

18231

0.89

9389

8842

13.

Munda

7993

0.39

4190

3803

14.

Noatia

7181

0.35

3695

3486

15.

Orang

5217

0.25

2670

2547

16.

Riang

84005

4.09

42973

40132

17.

Santal

2725

0.13

1428

1297

18.

Tripuri

330872

16.12

168334

210923

19.

Uchai

1306

0.06

670

636

 

Total

583920

28.44

286308

244146

The tribal population in India, in general, depends heavily on the natural resource based economy. The State of Tripura provided tribal sub-plan allocation since 5th Five Year Plan and quantified allocation proportionate to the percentage of Tribal population. The development thrust include “Economic Development” including Agriculture, Horticulture, Soil Conservation, Handloom & Handicraft, improvement of Jhum cultivation practices and rehabilitation of Jhumias; the “Social Development” programme include Health, Nutrition and Education sectors. It is evident that the sectors are closely inter-linked with the environment management. Detailed information on the scheme wise targets and achievement on the basis of ground- truth verification may provide a realistic assessment of the impact of investment (31%) on these “Ecosystem People”.

In addition to the specific programmes under general adminastration, additional support for Tribal development is being provided under Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTADC) set up January 1992 under 8th Schedule of the Constitution of India, latter shifted under 6th Schedule to entrust additional power and responsibilities from April 1st 1985. And analysis of the programme show major activities under forestry, fisheries, rural development, school education, horticulture and public health related work. Exact mechanism of coordination between the sub-plan and TTADC programme related to environment and natural resource management is not apparent from the official publication.

 
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