Habitat
State of Environment Report of Tripura for the year of 2002

The issues of habitat are considered the vital indicators for assessing the living condition of human population in an identified geographical area. The State of Tripura, remains predominantly rural with 84.70% population living in the rural sector.

The rural population of Tripura is distributed over census 856 villages in four districts. The village size, classified on the basis of basis of population indicate that largest number of villages (274) have 2000-4999 population and only 3 villages have more than 10,000 population. About 265 villages have less than 1000 population.

  A total of 4,39,101 households are identified in these 856 villages of the state; more than 80% of these households are located in ”Kutcha” houses; of the kutcha houses 42.85% remain non-serviceable. The living condition of vast majority of human population in Tripura remains much below the national average both in terms of percentage of kutcha houses (33.76%) and percentage of non- serviceable kutcha houses (9.24%). The number of village classified by population (1981) and number of rural households and classification of rural households are given in Table -93 and Table-94.

Table-93: Number of village classified by Population size in Tripura: 1981

1.

Total Number of Inhabited Village

856

2.

Total Rural Population

1,827,490

3.

Average Population per Village

2,135

4.

Village wise Population

<200

34

200-499

91

500-999

140

1000-1999

253

2000-4999

274

5000-9999

56

>10000

3

 

[Source: Census of India, 1981]

 Table- 94 : Number of Rural Households and percentage occupying Pucca, Semi Pucca and Kucha houses, 1991

 

Total Number

Percentage of various type of houses

Kutcha%

Pucca

Semi- Pucca

Kutcha

Servicable

Non-Servicable

Tripura

439,101

1.91

17.35

80.74

37.89

42.85

India

111,539,448

30.59

35.65

33.76

24.52

9.24

[Source: Anon, 1995. Housing and Amenities for Districts, cities and Towns. Occ. Paper 5 of 1994. Demography, Training and Data Dissemination Division. Census of India]

With regard to the service sector, only 30.60% of the total housing have access to safe drinking water in the state of Tripura as against national average of 55.34%. This again reflects the present status of living condition of more than 80% of the people of state remain much below the desired level.

In terms of toilet facilities, 62.43% of rural households in Tripura are reported to have access to such facilities as against Indian average of 9.48%; if this data is authenticated, Tripura stands second to Lakshadweep.

The urban centers of the State can be classified into 6 categories viz. Class I (100,000 and above), II (50,000-99,999), III (20,000-49,999), IV (10,000-19,999), V (5,000-9,999) and VI (less than 5,000). The census data of 1991 show that a total of 18 urban centers are known from Tripura, of which only one belongs to class I category (Agartala) and the largest number (7) belong to class II categories. Census data of 2001 show that total number of urban centers have increased to 23, of which West Tripura district has the largest number of urban centers i.e. 13 followed by South and North and Dhalai district. (Table-95).

Table-95 : Number of Urban Centers by size Class

 

Total Number

Number of Urban Centers by size Class

Class I

Class II

Class III

Class IV

Class V

Class VI

India

3696

300

345

947

1167

740

197

Tripura (1991)

18

1

0

4

7

4

2

Tripura (2001)

23

1

0

6

8

8

0

 

West

13

1

0

3

5

4

0

South

4

0

0

1

2

1

0

Dhalai

3

0

0

0

0

3

0

North

3

0

0

2

1

0

0

[Source : Census of India, 1991 & Census of India, 2001, Govt. of India]

The rural and urban populations break up of the State shows that West Tripura district has the highest population in both the categories while Dhalai district reflects the lowest in the State (Table-96).

  Table- 96 : District wise rural & urban population and urban Centre

District/State

Rural Population

Urban Population

Total Population

Percentage of Urban population

West Tripura

11,23,030

4,07,501

15,30,531

26.62%

South Tripura

7,08,498

54,067

7,62,565

7.09%

Dhalai

2,88,546

18,871

3,07,417

6.14%

North Tripura

5,28,000

62,655

5,90,655

10.61%

[Source : Census of India, 2001, Govt. of India]

  In 1991, of the total urban population of 0.42 million, the number and percentage of people living in the slum were 0.07 million and 17.6% respectively, the latter figure being much lower than the national average of 21.21%. The respective figure for 2001 are not available till date.

  In 1991, of the 85,054 households in urban Tripura, 24.02% lived in Pucca houses, the rest in semi pucca (38.06%) and Kutcha houses (37.42%); this shows that urban living condition remained much below the national average (Table-97 & 98); of the total population only 5.5% people have pucca houses. The respective figure for 2001 however are not available till date.

Table-97: Urban Housing in Tripura and India

 

Percentage of various type of houses

Kutcha%

Pucca

Semi- Pucca

Kutcha

Servicable

Non-Servicable

Tripura

24.02

38.06

37.92

6.68

2.88

India

72.75

17.69

9.56

12.04

25.89

 [Source: Census of India 1991]

  Table-98 : Rural and Urban Housing (Combined) in Tripura and in India

 

Percentage of various type of houses

Pucca

Semi-Pucca

Kuncha

Tripura

5.50

20.71

73.79

India

41.61

30.95

27.44

 [Source: Housing and Amenities office of the Register general of Census Commission, 1995]

 

In terms of accessibility to safe drinking water, 71.12% people are reported to have the access as against national average of 81.38%. Taking urban and rural population together only 37.18% people of Tripura have access to safe drinking water as against 62.30% on a national average (Table-99).

Table-99 : Percentage of household with access to safe drinking water (Rural –Urban combined)

 

Urban

Rural

Total

Tripura

71.12

30.60

37.18

India

81.38

55.34

62.30

[Source: Housing and Amenities Occ. Paper 5, office of the Register general of Census Commission, 1995]

  The livelihood pattern of urban population, like the rural ones, demands a clean sanitation system for better environment. While 63.85% of Indian urban population have toilet facilities, the figure for the State of Tripura stand at 96.32%; taken together with the rural population, the total percentage of population with toilet facilities stands at 67.93% as against 23.70% for India. Tripura is one of the four amongst all Indian States and Union Territories (in 1991) with 60% and above people having toilet facilities, the others being Mizoram (70.73%) Chandigar (70.80%), Delhi (63.38%) and Lakshadweep (71.02%) [Source: Office of the Register general of Census Commission, 1995]. It may be noted that a study conducted by National Institute of Urban Affairs (1991) on 398 urban household, shows that 65% of population have private toilet and 22% have community toilet facilities, making it 87% instead of 96.32% mentioned earlier.

 
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