Environmental Quality
State of Environment Report of Tripura for the year of 2002

The environmental quality is based on three physical parameters viz. Air quality, Water quality and Noise level. The biological parameters have been dealt elsewhere (Agriculture, Biodiversity). Primary data were collected in the months of March to June 2001. Ambient air quality was studied at 27 fixed stations covering all the four districts of Tripura. A total 19 Ground water samples were collected of which 17 were from Deep tube well. A total of 14 Surface Water samples were collected of which 12 were from streams and rivers and 2 were from wetlands; 3 locations were studied in West District for effluent water quality. The Tripura State Pollution Control Board provided data for water quality and air quality generated during months of October -November 1997 which have been utilised wherever possible, to compare with the data set of 2001.

15.1 Air Quality

The urban centers in the State have witnessed a significant increase in the number of industries in the small and medium sectors and also in the number of vehicles during 1990-2000. As a result, there has been a significant change in the quality of air in most of the urban centers. The quality of air is determined in terms of identified parameters such as Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon mono-oxide (CO), Lead (Pb), Respiratory Particulate Matter (RPM), etc. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) notified National Ambient Air Quality Standard (April, 1994) with regard to SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, Pb, RPM for Industrial area, Residential, Rural & other areas and for Sensitive areas. While the National Ambient Air quality Standards are applicable to annual arithmetic mean of 104 measurements in a year, taking twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval, the present study is based only on one season data, pre-monsoon 2001 and post-monsoon 1997.

15.1.1 Available Data Set

First available data on air quality monitoring in the State dates back to the Capital City of Agartala in December 1986. Subsequently the Tripura State Pollution Control Board monitored air quality in forty-one selected stations during October-November 1997. The present study as already mentioned was carried out in twenty-seven selected stations during March-June 2001. An attempt has been made to compare the past data from the same location with the current data set.

15.1.2 District Wise Air Quality

  • North Tripura District

No systematic information is available to compare the status of air quality in the district. However, four stations within the district are common in the 2nd and 3rd survey but the seasons are different. The locations and results of the monitoring stations are given in Table-102.

Table-102 : Air Quality data in 4 comparing sampling stations

Location

SPM (mg/m3)

RPM (mg/m3)

SO2 (mg/m3)

NOx (mg/m3)

Pb (mg/m3)

 

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

Kumarghat

88.88

284.63

NA

78.70

06.52

7.13

17.15

34.83

NA

0.47

Pencharthal

164.68

105.80

NA

41.10

12.05

3.67

26.05

34.83

NA

0.51

Panisagar

198.50

104.13

NA

42.87

15.84

3.53

31.26

38.37

NA

0.49

Kailashahar

79.30

129.77

NA

81.90

8.15

2.17

16.77

65.17

BDL

0.31

All the four sampling sites were located at the commercial areas, which were close to the residential area. Changes in the quality of air with regard to the parameters are given below.

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

The average SPM concentration at North Tripura district was 132.84 mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 79.30mg/m3 (Kailashahar) and 198.50mg/m3 (Pencharthal); it has now increased to 156.08mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 104.13mg/m3 (Panisagar) and 284.63mg/m3 (Kumarghat). However a comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both the data are within the permissible limit prescribed for 24 hourly values (200mg/m3)

Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of RPM in the district. But the present data show that average concentration of RPM within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (100mg/m3).

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

The average NOx concentration at North Tripura district was 22.81mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 16.77mg/m3 (Kailashahar) and 31.26mg/m3 (Panisagar), it has now increase to 43.30mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 38.83mg/m3 (Kumarghat) and 61.17mg/m3 (Kailashahar). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of NOx with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

The average SO2 concentration at North Tripura district was 10.64mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 6.52mg/m3 (Kumarghat) and 15.84mg/m3 (Panisagar), it has now decreased to 3.86mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 2.17mg/m3 (Kailashahar) and 7.13mg/m3 (Kumarghat). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of SO2 with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Lead (Pb)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of lead (Pb) in the district. But the present data show that average concentration of Pb (0.45) lies within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (1.5mg/m3).

  •  South Tripura District

Only five stations within the district are common in the 2nd and 3rd survey to compare the status of air quality. All the five stations were located in commercial areas, which was located near to the residential areas. The location and result of the monitoring stations is given in Table-103.

Table-103 : Air Quality data in 5 comparing sampling stations

Location

SPM (mg/m3)

RPM (mg/m3)

SO2 (mg/m3)

NOx (mg/m3)

Pb (mg/m3)

 

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

Udaipur Town

460.92

205.27

NA

86.70

17.52

3.13

38.56

32.53

NA

0.12

Udaipur Motor Stand

379.16

111.73

NA

51.07

17.82

4.20

37.69

27.47

NA

0.06

Amarpur

359.08

110.40

NA

47.07

08.27

3.43

23.07

49.03

NA

0.30

Santi Bazar

143.52

211.30

NA

149.27

18.02

4.90

19.56

38.47

NA

0.11

Belonia

92.25

127.00

NA

95.17

07.08

4.17

19.56

37.90

NA

0.09

 Changes in the quality of air with regard to the parameters are given below.

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

The average SPM concentration at South Tripura district was 286.97 mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 92.25mg/m3 (Belonia) and 460.90mg/m3 (Udaipur Town); it has now decreased to 153.14mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 110.40mg/m3 (Amarpur) and 205.27mg/m3 (Udaipur Town). A comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that the SPM level of 1997 was higher than the permissible limit, but the SPM level of 2001 is within the permissible limit prescribed for 24 hourly values (200mg/m3)

Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of RPM in the district. But the present data show that average concentration (85.86mg/m3) of RPM within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (100mg/m3).

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

The average NOx concentration at South Tripura district was 27.69mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 19.56mg/m3 (Belonia) and 38.56mg/m3 (Udaipur Town), it has now decreased to 37.08mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 32.53mg/m3 (Udaipur Town) and 49.03mg/m3 (Amarpur). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of NOx with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

The average SO2 concentration at South Tripura district was 13.74mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 7.08mg/m3 (Belonia) and 17.82mg/m3 (Udaipur Motor Stand), it has now decreased to 3.97mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 3.13mg/m3 (Udaipur Town) and 4.90mg/m3 (Santibazar). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of SO2 with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Lead (Pb)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of lead (Pb) in the district. But the present data show that average concentration of Pb (0.14) lies within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (1.5mg/m3).

  • West Tripura District

Only eight stations within the district are common in the 2nd and 3rd survey to compare the status of air quality. Of which seven stations were located in commercial areas, which was located near to the residential areas and one station is located in the industrial area which is located near to the residential area. The location and result of the monitoring stations is given in Table-104.

 Table-104 : Air Quality data in 8 comparing sampling stations

Location

SPM (mg/m3)

RPM (mg/m3)

SO2 (mg/m3)

NOx (mg/m3)

Pb (mg/m3)

 

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

Agartala Motor Stand

420.02

461.63

400.10

137.43

30.68

2.83

51.38

136.47

0.36

0.61

Dukli Industrial Estate*

149.09

84.70

NA

38.07

14.64

7.10

29.97

23.53

BDL

0.52

Jirania –Kunjaban

142.31

48.87

NA

20.43

12.14

9.00

30.04

86.47

BDL

0.36

Jirania- Jirania Bazar

410.55

175.87

NA

45.63

18.27

6.27

49.38

86.13

BDL

0.44

Khowai

176.95

76.17

NA

59.37

10.37

6.43

17.94

57.23

BDL

0.25

Sonamura

279.29

39.90

NA

26.67

13.76

5.80

34.81

44.70

NA

0.45

Radhanagar Bus Stand

327.72

142.97

NA

34.00

18.54

5.80

39.09

65.20

BDL

0.26

Bishalgarh

325.77

78.53

NA

38.33

17.35

5.80

30.89

56.23

BDL

0.45

 Changes in the quality of air with regard to the parameters are given below.

  Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)

The average SPM concentration at West Tripura district was 278.96 mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 142.31mg/m3 (Kunjaban) and 420.02 mg/m3 (Agartala Motor Stand); it has now decreased to 138.58mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 39.90mg/m3 (Sonamura) and 461.63mg/m3 (Agartala Motor Stand). A comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that the SPM level of 1997 was higher than the permissible limit, but the SPM level of 2001 is within the permissible limit prescribed for 24 hourly values (200mg/m3)

Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of RPM in the district. But the present data show that average concentration (49.99mg/m3) of RPM within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (100mg/m3).

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

The average NOx concentration at West Tripura district was 35.44mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 17.94mg/m3 (Khowai) and 49.38mg/m3 (Jirania Bazar), it has now increased to 69.50mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 23.53mg/m3 (Dukli Industrial Estate) and 136.47mg/m3 (Agartala Motor Stand). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of NOx with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

The average SO2 concentration at West Tripura district was 36.97mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 10.37mg/m3 (Khowai) and 30.68mg/m3 (Agartala Motor Stand), it has now decreased to 6.13mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 2.83mg/m3 (Agartala Motor Stand) and 9.00mg/m3 (Kunjaban). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of SO2 with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

 Lead (Pb)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of lead (Pb) in the district. But the present data show that average concentration of Pb (0.42) lies within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (1.5mg/m3).

  • Dhalai District

 Only three stations within the district are common in the 2nd and 3rd survey to compare the status of air quality. All the three stations were located in commercial areas, which was located near to the residential areas. The location and result of the monitoring stations is given in Table-105.

Table-105 : Air Quality data in 3 comparing sampling stations

 

Location

SPM (mg/m3)

RPM (mg/m3)

SO2 (mg/m3)

NOx (mg/m3)

Pb (mg/m3)

 

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

Ambasa

51.36

79.00

NA

34.13

05.91

3.07

13.49

30.37

DBL

0.31

Kamalpur, Salema

101.38

67.60

NA

39.77

08.62

7.43

18.22

17.87

BDL

0.38

Manu

162.02

98.63

NA

45.13

11.79

2.60

26.15

34.17

BDL

0.38

 Changes in the quality of air with regard to the parameters are given below.

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)


The average SPM concentration at Dhalai district was 104.92 mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 51.36mg/m3 (Ambasa) and 162.02 mg/m3 (Manu), it has now decreased to 81.74mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 79.00mg/m3 (Ambasa) and 98.63mg/m3 (Manu). However a comparison with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both the data are within the permissible limit prescribed for 24 hourly values (200mg/m3).

Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of RPM in the district. But the present data show that average concentration (39.68mg/m3) of RPM within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (100mg/m3).

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

The average NOx concentration at Dhalai district was 19.29mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 13.94mg/m3 (Ambasa) and 26.15mg/m3 (Manu), it has now increased to 27.47mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 17.87mg/m3 (Kamalpur) and 34.17mg/m3 (Manu). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of NOx with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

The average SO2 concentration at Dhalai district was 8.77mg/m3 in 1997 with a range between 5.91mg/m3 (Ambasa) and 11.79mg/m3 (Manu), it has now decreased to 4.37mg/m3 in 2001 with a range between 2.60mg/m3 (Manu) and 7.43mg/m3 (Kamalpur). Comparison of 24 hourly average concentration of SO2 with National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area revealed that both are within the limit (80mg/m3).

Lead (Pb)

No systematic date is available to compare the status of lead (Pb) in the district. But the present data show that average concentration of Pb (0.36) lies within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for residential area (1.5mg/m3).

Industrial Area and Commercial Area

Only two stations were located industrial areas, which was near to the residential areas out of twenty-seven selected stations monitored during the present survey. An attempt has been made to compare the industrial areas with the commercial area. It is seen that SPM and RPM level as also NOx remain high in the commercial area while SO2 and lead show an increasing concentration in industrial area with reference to the State level average the commercial area exceed in terms of SPM, RPM and NOx (Table-106).

Table-106 : Air quality in the State of Tripura, Commercial & Industrial area

Parameter

State

Commercial Areas

Industrial Estate

SPM

171.81

177.74

97.69

RPM

68.86

70.17

52.47

NOx

67.62

69.23

47.53

SO2

4.73

4.66

5.55

Pb

0.39

0.37

0.62

State level Ambient Air Quality in Tripura during summer

An analysis of the available data show that concentration of SPM in the residential area comply with NAAQS up to 77.7% while compliance level of RPM stands at 81.5%. The compliance level for three other parameters namely NOx, SO2 and Pb stand at 74.07%, 100% and 100% respectively. Among the four district of Tripura the North district appears to have the highest pollution load and Dhalai district the lowest load during summer

15.2 Water Quality

15.2.1 Ground Water Quality

The ground water sampling were carried out at 19 stations distributed over four districts (North :4, Dhalai :1, West :11 and South :3). A total of 30 parameters were analysed to study physical characteristics, mineral constituents, toxic metals and induction of organic pollution. A comparative study of results from 4 districts, for the major parameters of 19 samples show that, TDS, TSS, Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate remain within permissible limit; the same is applicable for Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium and Chromium; BOD, COD, Oil and Grease, Phenolic Compounds also remain within the prescribed limit. No faecal coliform was found in any sample.

The ground water quality indicate that it is suitable both for drinking and irrigation purposes.

First available data set on water quality monitoring in the State dates back to October-November 1997 in 20 stations. The present study as already mentioned was carried out in 19 selected stations during March-June 2001. An attempt has been made to compare the past data from the same location with the current data set.

Only four stations (3 in West Tripura and 1 in North Tripura) within the State are common in the 1st and 2nd survey which have been compared to study the status of water quality at different time level (Table-107).

Table-107 : Ground Water Quality data in 4 comparing stations

Parameters

Sampling Stations

Dukli (West)

Jirania (West)

Khowai (West)

Kumarghat (North)

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

1997

2001

Conductivity

433.0

110.0

303.0

160.0

128.0

202.0

128.0

152.0

TDS

282.0

80.0

197.0

120.0

83.0

128.0

83.2

115.0

PH

6.9

6.0

6.9

6.5

6.7

6.3

6.5

6.6

Hardness

78.72

40.0

78.72

64.0

51.72

92.0

53.20

76.0

Calcium

14.57

8.0

14.57

16.03

9.06

15.0

9.28

13.2

Magnesium

10.18

4.8

10.02

5.8

7.09

17.6

7.29

10.5

Alkalinity

56.52

56.0

115

90

31.80

105

36.70

85.0

Nitrate

1.09

0.015

32.26

0.012

0.55

0.015

0.88

0.02

Chloride

8.67

0.6

NA

11.3

2.92

8.5

3.10

11.3

Iron

0.17

0.37

0.21

0.26

0.06

0.21

0.02

0.29

Fluoride

BDL

<0.003

BDL

<0.003

BDL

<0.003

BDL

<0.003

  [*= Data collected by TSPCB during the month of October-November, 1997;

**= Data collected during present study in the month of May-June, 2001]

It is seen that Conductivity, TDS, pH, Hardness, Magnesium, Alkalinity Nitrate remain low in Dukli and Jirania but Iron content is high in both these water samples compared to 1997 water samples. While in case of Khowai and Kumarghat Conductivity, TDS, pH, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Alkalinity, Iron, Chloride remain high compared to 1997 data set but the Nitrate content appears low.

 

15.2.2 Surface Water

The surface water monitoring include 12 stations along 8 rivers, namely Howrah, Deo, Manu, Dhalai, Juri, Feni, Khowai and Muhuri in four districts, besides two lakes viz: Amarsagar and Jagannathdighi; effluent water sampling in three locations in the West District was carried out in and around Agartala.

 The River Water sample study shows TDS, TSS, Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate, Calcium Magnesium, Sodium Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, and Lead etc. to be all within permissible limit. Even indicators of organic pollutants, BOD value (except for river near Belionia) remain within the limit; Dissolved oxygen level shows little higher value than permissible limit in Deo at Kailashsahar and Howrah river station near forest office at Agartala. However, all the river water samples appear highly polluted from bacteriological standard and coliform bacterial loads including faecal coliform bacterial load exceed the tolerance limit. Of the river and stream samples, oil and grease appear to be very high in Howrah and Chandrapur stream at Chandrapur because of location of large number of automobile garages.

The pond water quality study shows that most of the parameters are within limit but concentration of phenolic compounds and oil and grease are well above tolerance limit; this is largely attributed to dumping of waste product. Bacteriological quality of pond water also shows high level of total coliform and faecal coliform, making the water unsuitable for potability (as was the case for surface water).

Effluent water sampling stations were located along engineering processing works, distilleries and diaries. While most of the parameters conformed with the laid down standard, BOD value appeared very high in case of industrial processing effluent and dairy effluent; the oil and grease level remain just within stipulated limit in these two streams (Ramakrishna Engineering Work, Agartala and Dairy unit in Indranagar Katakhal). Both these sampling stations also show very high level of total coliform and faecal coliform bacterial load.

15.3 Noise Level Quality

Noise level was measured in four townships and semi-urban centers in North district (Kailasahar, Kumarghat, Kanchanpur and Darmanagar), three centers in Dhalai district (Manu, Amabassa, Kamalpur), six centers in West district (Agartala, Khowai, Bishalgarh, Jirania, AD Nagar, Melaghar) and five centers in South district (Amarpur, Udaipur, Matabari, Sabroom, Belonia).

Major noise level can be attributed to motor vehicles, industrial works, air-horn and loudspeakers.

Ambient noise level was significantly higher in commercial, residential and industrial areas (including silence zone) in the North district, Dhalai district, West district and South district in Tripura.

Note: Details of sampling stations, parameters, district-wise data and analysis are given in the form of a separate report to TSPCB for Air, Water, Noise quality studies conducted during pre monsoon season, 2001.

15.4 Management of Hazardous Chemicals

 About 1,00,000 chemicals are estimated to be in daily use in different applications for the benefit of human society; and of these, approximately 7000 are produced commercially in large quantities. Most of them have little or severe adverse effect on environment. Some of them are fatal in respect of human and animal health as well as to natural environment. These effects may be acute or chronic.

Thus, management of hazardous chemicals has become an important environmental and public health issue and concern with the ever-growing evidence of the serious consequences of indiscriminate disposal. The control and management of hazardous chemicals should draw a high level of public interest and socio-economic and political forces must play a major role in such efforts.

Most of the industrial units in Tripura are small scale in nature and most of them do not use the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Therefore, inventorisation of hazardous chemicals can only be done for medium scale industrial units.

15.4.1 Industrial sectors using hazardous chemicals

Following are the different industrial sectors storing and using hazardous chemicals in Tripura:

·        Gas gathering stations, ·        Drug intermediate (Diosgene) producing unit,

·        Latex processing unit, ·        LPG bottling plant,

·        Bottling plant of alcoholic beverages, and ·        Gas distribution pipelines.

 Gas gathering stations

At present, there are four installations of gas gathering stations set up by ONGC in Tripura. In these gas gathering stations, natural gas from various drilling points in Tripura is collected, purified and then stored for further distribution. The hazardous chemical here is the natural gas itself. Table-108 gives the production capacity of natural gas in different installations.

Table –108 : Production capacity of different gas gathering stations in Tripura

Sl. No.

Location

Production Capacity (in m3/day)

1

Konaban

5,00,000

2

Rukia

5,00,000

3

Agartala dome

5,00,000

4

Barmora

2,00,000

 [Source: Environment Division, National Productivity Council, 2001]

 Diosgene producing unit

A Diosgene producing unit set up by Tripura Forest Development and Plantation Corporation (TFDPC) is functioning in the state. The existing production capacity of 1 MT/year is projected to increase to 5 MT/year. The extraction from Dioscorea tubers and concentration process of Diosgene production involve two hazardous chemicals, namely the Hexane (C6H14) and Sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Hexane is stored within the unit (storage capacity is 12 kiloliter), whereas, sulphuric acid is not stored but is procurred as per need. At the present production capacity, the consumption rate of sulphuric acid is 9 MT/year; it is expected to increase to 45 MT/year with the projected capacity.

Latex processing unit

A large Latex processing unit has been set up by TFDPC at Takmachar. This unit tap and process the rubber to produce latex concentrate and other by products. The hazardous chemicals, which are used here for production of concentrate latex and different by products are: Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and Ammonia (NH3). The rate of consumption of above mentioned chemicals are 250 MT/year and 45 MT/year respectively.  

LPG bottling unit

The solitary LPG bottling plant in the state has been set up by the Indian Oil Corporation at Bisalgarh of West district. The average inventory of LPG in this plant is 80 MT to 90 MT. While the average production capacity of the bottling plant is 5,000 MT/year.

In view of the current storage capacity being limited to 80 to 90 MT, the facility does not fall under the purview of Manufacture, Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemical Rules, (as per the schedule of 1998 & 2000, for an isolated storage, the minimum capacity should be 100 MT and above). However, concidering the future prospect, it will be advisable to ensure compliance of the extant rules.

Bottling plants of alcoholic beverages

At present there are two alcoholic beverage bottling plant situated (Gemini distillery at Bodhjanagar and Varuni distillery at Kumarghat Industrial Estate) in Tripura. The hazardous chemical used in these plants is Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) itself. The storage capacity of the above mentioned distilleries are 1800 liters and 1260 kiloliters respectively.

Gas distribution pipelines

The gas distribution pipelines in Tripura are installed by the Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL). The natural gas collected at different gas gathering stations is distributed to different thermal power plants in Tripura through these pipelines. Keeping in mind the total storage capacity of different gas gathering stations (17,00,00 m3/day), these distribution pipelines also need to be attended as they convey the natural gas, which has the potential to cause hazard. Further, GAIL is also laying pipelines for city gas supply to domestic consumers. No EIA has been carried out for the said project.

 
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