ENERGY
State of Environment Report of Tripura for the year of 2002

The demand for energy both for domestic and agriculture, as also for industrial sectors increase with expanding development activities and population. Themajor share of organised energy production is based on Thermal power or Coal fired plants in India. But the use of wood based energy at household level take care 61.50% of the total energy use pattern in India. While citizens have to depend variably to at least 8 different non-renewable energy sources, alternative source of energy, renewable in nature, are always being researched to assess the region wise potential and cost per unit of production and supply.

9.1 Energy Use in Urban & Rural Household

A survey of more than 600,000 households, of which more than 80% are from rural sector, shows a distinct profile of energy use for cooking in Tripura. Wood based energy remains the largest supply source with 91.52% as against 61.50% for India followed by Kerosene based energy use, 1.72% which is however much lower than the national figure of 7.16%; this can be attributed either to inadequate supply of kerosene or to non-affordability of prices by the people. Use of electrical energy in these households, show a very low 0.07% as against 0.21% in India. The energy divide between rural and urban household is glaring in terms of use of 17.39% of urban household using LPG as against 0.14% in rural sector, and 10.43% of urban household using kerosene as against 0.27% in the rural sector; on the other hand the use of wood based energy, as expected is much lower in urban sector (67.60%) as compared to the rural sector (96.16%). The details of energy use pattern are given in Table-64.

 Table-64: Consumption of Energy for Cooking at Household level by type of fuel, 1991

 

Sector

Household Nos.

Kerosene

Electricity

Coal/coke

Charcoal

LPG

Wood

Biogas

Cow dung

other

Total

600,742

1.92

(7.16)

0.07

(0.31)

0.02

(0.47)

1.54

(0.77)

3.35

(7.94)

91.52

(61.50)

0.09

(0.49)

0.46

(15.39)

1.01

(2.91)

Rural

492,226

0.57

0.01

0.01

1.33

0.64

96.16

0.01

0.51

1.06

Urban

108,498

10.43

0.38

0.06

2.63

17.39

67.60

0.02

0.21

0.77

  [Note : Figures within parenthesis stand for India: Source: Housing & Amenities occ. Paper 5 of 1994, Demography, Training and Data Dissemination Division, Census of India]

 9.2 Renewable Energy

In the area of renewable energy use, small hydel power units produces a total of 1.01MW and the solar energy is used in street lighting (335 number), home lighting (1323 numbers) and in solar lanterns (1606 numbers). While there is no record of household based biogas plants till 1987-88, a total of 792 biogas plants have since been installed in six years from 1988-89 to 1993-94. There is no record of use of wind energy or wood based gasifier power in the state of Tripura. Considering the vast forest resources and suitability of land for growing captive plantation, wood based gasifier power plants, on the basis of micro planning can open a new avenue for off-grid stand alone rural electric/ power supply. The potential for such off-grid, stand alone wood based gasifier power plant based on supply from energy plantation with peoples’ participation need to be intensively investigated Table-65 provides a current profile of Renewable Energy use in Tripura and also the growth of biogas power unit at household level between 1985-86 to 1993-1994.

Table- 65: Use of Renewable Energy in Tripura

 

Sl. No.

Source of Energy

Amount or Number

1.

Wind Energy (MW)

0.

2.

Small Hydel Power (MW)

16.0 MW

3.

Biomass Power (MW)

0

4.

Gasifier Power (MW)

0

5.

Solar Power (Nos.)

16703

A.

Street Light

460

B.

Domestic Light

1638

C.

Solar lantern

14605

[Source: Directorate of Non Conventional Energy, Govt. of Tripura, 2001]

9.3 Fuel Saving Chullah

 The efforts to have better energy management is reflected in introduction of improved chullahs. While neghbouring states of Arunachal Pradesh (15000/925), Assam 950000/490), Manipur (15000/3155), Mizoram (15000/3000), Nagaland (10000/107) have achieved a very low level against target set between 10000 (Nagaland) to 50000 (Assam), the State of Tripura has an impressive record of having 11549 fuel efficient chullahs (against target of 15000) introduced under national programme of improved chullahs during 1997-98 (MNES Annual Report, 1997-98). The current figure (March 2001) for improved chullah stands at 52156 showing a significant success. Such efforts if continued, may help to reduce consumption of wood biomass at an alarming rate.

The state of Tripura also shows some effort to introduce household level biogas plant since 1988-89. A total of 420 units have been installed within six years (Table-66) and the figure now stands at 1005 (March 31, 2001). This shows a growth of 2.5 times in seven years period.

Table- 66 : Household Biogas Power Plant

Sl. No.

Year

Nos.

1.       

1985-86

0

2.       

1986-87

0

3.       

1987-88

0

4.       

1988-89

39

5.       

1989-90

NA

6.       

1990-91

75

7.       

1991-92

115

8.       

1992-93

122

9.       

1993-94

69

 

Total

420

Note: The figures stands at 1005 as on 31st March 2001

[Source : Anon 1996. Indian Energy Sector, Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, New Delhi p.-91]

9.3.1 Future Plan

In order to improve the renewable energy production and consumption, State Government formulated an Action Plan for the year of 2001-02 and set a target for 10th Plan (2002-03 to 2006-07). The proposed target for 2001-02 given in Table-67.

Table- 67: Proposed target for Action Plan (2001-02) & (2002-03 to 2006-07)

 

Sl. No.

Source of Energy

Amount or Number

2001-02

2002-03 to 2006-07

1.

Improved Chullaha

18,000

145,000

2.

Biogas Plant

300

1,500

3.

Solar lantern

10,000

45,000

4.

Domestic Lighting System

800

4,400

5.

Street Lighting System

300

1,500

6.

Biomass Gasifier Plant

(4x259kW) x 1

(1 MW) x 5

7.

SPV Power Plant

(25 kW ) x 2

(50 kW) x 5

8.

Village Electrification through Non Conventional Energy

20

100

  9.4 Energy Use and Hydrocarbon

The exploitation and natural gas in Tripura needs a special mentions under “Energy” related discussion, for which details have been given under “Mineral Resources”.

 However, with regard to consumption of hydrocarbon fuel, the data available for 1995-96 to 1997-98 show an upwardly mobile trend, but in a slow pace except for use of kerosene which shows a 50% increase in three years (Table-68).

 Table- 68 : Consumption of Kerosene & Diesel (Thousand liters) in Tripura

 

Sl. No.

Type of Petroleum Product

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1.

Kerosene

23

29

32

2.

Diesel

33

36

37

3.

Petrol

6

6

6

 [Source: D.C Garg. 1999. Min. of Petroleum and Natural Gas, New Delhi. In The Citizens Fifth Report, CSE, 1999, Part-2]

 9.5 Electricity & Power

 9.5.1 Power Generation

Main source of power generation in the State is oil, hydro-electric and gas. Power generation in the State heavily depends on natural gas. The 1995-96 data shows that, the relative share of electricity generated through natural gas is about 78% of the total electricity generated in the State. The following table shows the steady rate increase of electricity generation in the State (Table-69).

 Table -69: Power situation in Tripura (1999-2000)

 

Diesel

Hydel

Gas

Total

No. of power generation station

1

2

2

5

Installed capacity of Gen. Station (MW)

4.85

16.0

64.5

85.35

Electricity Generation in (MU)

1.85

61.07

251.26

314.18

Purchase from Central Sector Grid (MU)

259.15

Total electricity sold to ultimate consumer (MU)

366.34

 9.5.2 Consumption of Energy

Industrial sector, domestic sector and agriculture sector are the main consumers in the State. Out of the total consumption of power 362.43 MU during 1999-2000, as much as 37% was used in the agricultural sector, 27% was utilized in the domestic sector, 19% in the industrial sector and 12% in the commercial sector (Table-70). 

Table –70 : Power consumption pattern in the State (in MU)

Year

Sold to ultimate consumers

Domestic Sector

Commercial Sector

Industrial Sector

Public Lighting

Agricultural Sector

Others

1990-91

121.07

33.36

14.75

24.47

3.63

39.53

2.52

1991-92

140.30

38.88

16.66

27.76

4.16

45.63

8.47

1992-93

167.61

47.05

20.05

30.59

4.81

55.34

9.77

1994-95

193.70

46.81

21.65

38.69

6.78

65.81

9.00

1995-96

223.66

53.76

26.88

44.80

11.20

73.96

13.06

1997-98

315.88

75.81

37.96

63.18

15.80

104.24

18.95

1998-99

363.12

97.11

43.57

69.91

7.26

134.36

10.91

1999-2000

362.43

96.91

43.46

69.77

7.21

134.09

10.88

  [Source: Statistical Abstract of Tripura 1996 & Economic Review, Tripura 1999-2000]

9.5.3 Supply and Demand Situation

The State is experiencing persistence power shortage due to increasing demand of electricity for domestic sector, industrial sector and agricultural sector. During the year 1999-2000 it is noted that the total installed capacity was 85.35 MW, total generation 314.18MU, total purchase of power was 259.15 MU and total power sold to ultimate consumer was 366.34 MU. Total demand of electricity in the State was 133 MW.

9.5.4 Electrification of village and towns

The available data shows that all the towns are electrified in the State while 80% of the village in the State was electrified during the year 1999-2000. District wise data shows that South Tripura was the most electrified villages in the State i.e. 94.40% followed by North Tripura 95%, Dhalai 73.62% and West Tripura 70.60%.

 
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