Agriculture

State of Environment Report in Tripura -2002

Introduction

The first agricultural census (as a part of 4th World Agricultural Census of 1970) was conducted as far back as in 1970-71. This was followed by Second Agricultural Census of 1976-77, Third Agricultural Census of 1980-81, Fourth Agricultural Census of 1985-86 and the Fifth Agricultural Census of 1990-91.

8.1 Holding and Land Use

The agricultural census data of 1985-86 and that of 1990-91 indicate a changing profile of holding. Marginal holding (below 1.0ha) declined by 18.5%, small holding (1-2ha) by 7.0% but semi-medium (2-4ha) increased by 3.2%, medium ones (4-10ha) increased by 28.8%, and large holding (10ha & above) increased by 148.3% between the period under study.

The area of operational holding of the State under each category of land use with their respective percentage in 1985-86 and 1990-91 clearly indicates a decline in net sown area (from 85.3 to 79.17%), current fallow area (from1.2 to 1.8%) and net cultivated area (from 86.5 to 80.9%). During the same period total uncultivated land area increased in terms of percentage from 3.6% to 9.9%.

The Economic Review, Tripura for the year 1999-2000, (P-35) also provided a different and changing profile of land use. It is noted that the net sown area of the state was increased to 281,000 ha. in 1998-1999 but declined to 279,000 ha. in 1999-2000 but even then it shows a significant rise from the figure of 270,913 (1985-1986) and 243,950 (1990-1991) [vide Table 48].

Table-48 : Land Use

 

Sl. No.

Land use

Area (ha)

1985-86

Percentage

1985-86

Area (ha)

1990-91

Percentage

1990-91

1.       

Net Sown Area

270913

85.3

243950

79.1

2.       

Current Fallow

3841

1.2

5389

1.8

3.       

Net Cultivated Area (1+2)

274754

86.5

249339

80.9

4.       

Uncultivated Land

11488

3.6

30749

9.9

5.       

Land not available for cultivation

31350

9.9

28288

9.2

6.       

Total

317592

100.00

308376

100.00

  [Source: State Report on Agricultural Census 1990-91, p.36]


 

The cropping pattern has been changed drastically with food crops occupying 96.36% leaving only 3.64% for non-food crop area.

8.2 Irrigation

The agricultural census data of 1985-86 and 1990-91 also provide an insight into the percentage of wholly irrigated, partly irrigated, wholly unirrigated, net irrigated and net unirrigated land area and percentage in terms of total sown area. While only 2.1% of total sown area were wholly irrigated in 1985-86 a marginal increase to 3.6% is noted in 1990-91. For partly irrigated sown area, the corresponding figure changed significantly from 4.1% to 10.5%. It is to be noted that while in 1985-86, wholly unirrigated sown area was 93.5%, the figure declined to 85.8% in 199-91. The net irrigated area increased from 4.2 to 7.7% during the same period.

The source of irrigation may be canal, tank, well, tube well or others. Canal irrigation shows a nearly doubled the area in terms of increase of coverage from 13.9% to 25.2% during 1985-86 to 1990-91. For tank irrigation, the corresponding figure changed from 2.5% to 10.8%. Total net irrigated area shows an increase from 11291 ha to 18858ha during the same period under study; however the bulk irrigation is provided by a combination of systemic from other sources (82.6% in 1985-86 to 55.1% in 1990-91). The intensity of irrigated crop area is calculated at 1.605 (Ref State Report on Agricultural Census, 1990-91).

It is also projected that of the total of 2,79,000 ha. of cultivable land, 1,77,000 ha. could be irrigated from surface water (79,000 ha.) and ground water (38,000 ha.) sources. The target to provide assured irrigation water to the entire command area is fixed at 2010 AD.

 

8.3 Agricultural Crops

The census data clearly indicates that cereal growing area of the State extends over 69.5% of the total area under cultivation while pulses are grown only in 0.8% of land. Next to cereals, of which 69.3% out of 69.5% is occupied by Rice cultivation, the fiber crops specially Jute and Mesta occupy 9.6% of the cultivated area. This is followed by Fruits (6.8%) and Vegetables (4.1%), etc. The total food crop area occupies 70.3% of the area, total non fruit crop area remains limited to only 17%. Besides Rice, Jute, Mesta fruits and vegetables, sugarcane (0.4%) and oilseeds (1.3%) are other crops grown in agricultural field of the State (Table-49) (Ref.: State Report on Agricultural Census, 1990-91, Tripura, p.-52).

Table-49 : Agriculture in Tripura 1990-91

 

Sl. No.

Crop

Area (ha)

Percentage

 

Gross Cropped area : 297108 ha.

 

Net Sown area 213950 ha

A.

Cereals

1.

Rice

206022

69.3

2.

Wheat

206

0.1

3.

Other Cereals

444

0.5

 

Total Cereal

206672

69.5

B.

Pulses

2336

0.8

 

Total Food Grain

209008

70.3

C.

Sugarcane

1316

0.4

D.

Fruit

20071

6.8

E.

Vegetable

12041

4.1

F.

Other food crops

4329

1.5

 

Total food crops

246765

83.1

G.

Oilseed

3875

1.3

H.

Fibers

1.

Jute & Mesta

26938

9.1

2.

Other Fibers

1654

0.5

 

Total Fibers

28592

9.6

I.

Other non food crop

17876

6.6

 

Total non food crop

50343

16.9

 

Gross Cropped area

297108

100.00


 

Table 49 B: Cropping Pattern 1990-1991 and 1999-2000

 

Sl. No.

Crops

1990-1991

1999-2000

1

Cereals

69.5

89.92

2

Pulses

0.8

2.21

3

Food grain (1+2)

70.3

92.13

4

Condiments & Spices

11.3

1.70

5

Other food crops

1.5

2.53

6

Total food crops (3+4+5)

83.1

96.36

7

Oilseeds

1.3

2.35

8

Pulses and other non-food crop

16.2

1.29

9

Total non food crop

16.9

3.64

 

Total (6+9)

100.00

100.00

 

8.4 Fertilizers

The fertilizers used in Tripura include Super Phosphate, Urea, Die-ammonium Phosphate, Murate of Potash and mixed fertilizer.

8.5 Changing Profile

The foregoing account largely reflects the agricultural scenario during 1980-1990 period. Most recent data available from Department of Agriculture show a significant trend of change in terms of area covered under different crops. The rice growing area has increased from 206022 ha of 1990-91 to 232160 ha in 1999-2000 (11.25%). The wheat growing area extended from 206 ha in 1990-91 to 1250 ha in 1999-2000 (506.79%). While total pulses covered only 2336 ha in 1990-91, it has more than doubled to 6390 ha in 10 years. A detailed district wise account of crop and area under cultivation is given in Table-50.

Table-50 : Area under Cultivation in ha. (1999-2000)

 

Crop

Districts

North

Dhalai

West

South

Total

Rice

39085

24985

99140

68950

232160

Maize

185

225

465

375

1250

Wheat

117

300

627

206

1250

Gram

22

20

111

62

215

Other Pulses

986

1006

2707

1476

6175

Total Pulses

1008

1026

2818

1538

6390

Groundnut

140

317

482

211

1150

Sesamum

405

360

785

450

2000

Rape & Mustard

520

1087

750

628

2985

Total Oilseeds

1065

1760

2221

1089

6135

Potato

750

445

1755

2600

5550

Chilies

355

418

604

533

1910

Ginger

195

170

305

390

1060

Tobacco

73

122

30

70

295

Sugarcane

230

318

165

302

1015

Turmeric

243

230

482

505

1460

Jute

62

106

427

255

850

Mesta

120

320

590

470

1500

Cotton

123

581

52

108

865

The irrigated area covering different crops also extended from 18,858ha (7.7%) to 50333ha nearly tripling the area in 10 years. The details of different crops under irrigation (partly or wholly) is given in Table-51.

Table-51 : Irrigated Area under different Crops (in ha) 1999-2000

Sl. No.

Crop

Area (hectares)

1.       

Rice

37665

2.       

Wheat

700

3.       

Total Pulses

910

4.       

Sugarcane

350

5.       

Fruits & Vegetables

9745

6.       

Total Oilseeds

905

7.       

Other non-food crops

58

 

Total

50333

The consumption pattern of NPK fertilizer during 1999-2000 in four district of Tripura is given in Table-52:

Table-52 : Consumption of Chemical fertilizers (in M.T.) (1999-2000)

Fertilizer

Districts

North

Dhalai

West

South

Total

N

481

427

2955

2463

6326

P

282

129

799

532

1742

K

302

338

151

51

842

Total

1065

894

3905

3046

8910

[Source: Dept. of Agriculture, Govt. of Tripura, 2001]

The data on detailed categories of pesticides e.g. organochlorine, organophosphate, others is not available. But the available data reveal use of 17.382 metric tonnes of pesticides during 1999-2000 for agricultural fields in Tripura in 272855 ha i.e. 64 gm/ha of pesticides per ha had been used in the State (Table-53).

Table-53 : Pesticides Consumption (in MT Tech. Grade) (1999-2000)

Sl. No.

Category

Amount

A.

Indigenously Produced

1.

Insecticides

9.866

2.

Fungicides

7.466

3.

Weedicides

NA

4.

Rodentocides & Fumigants

0.034

B.

Imported

1.

Insecticides

0.016

 

Total

17.382 M.T.

Table- 54 : District wise consumption of Plant Protection Material & Tech. Grade during 2000-2001

 

 

Material

Tech. grade

1

West

7.961 MT/KL

2.427 MT/KL

2

South

12.188 MT/KL

3.692 MT/KL

3

North

7.178 MT/KL

2.690 MT/KL

4

Dhalai

4.807 MT/KL

1.531 MT/KL

 

Total

32.142 MT/KL

10.340 MT/KL

Table- 55 : Consumption of Plant Protection Chemical (Item wise)

Pesticides

April

May

June

Total

Blitox

0.001

0.004

0.009

0.014

Bavistin

0.001

0.002

0.004

0.007

Mancozeb

0.018

0.073

0.052

0.143

Furadun 3 gr.

--

0.001

0.007

0.008

Malathien 5/DP

0.142

0.092

0.079

0.313

Durmef

0.088

0.186

0.147

0.421

Endosulfan 35%

0.058

0.099

0.112

0.269

Lindane 6.5/DP

--

0.002

0.003

0.005

Captan 75% WP

0.001

0.032

0.012

0.045

Neemgreen

--

0.009

0.033

0.042

Dathamethrin

0.001

0.009

0.010

0.020

Phosalone 35%

0.026

0.107

0.171

0.304

Topsin M-70

0.002

0.010

0.013

0.025

Plantomycin

--

0.003

0.001

0.004

Phomidon

0.011

0.039

0.036

0.086

Zink Phosphide

0.002

0.001

0.002

0.005

Monocrotophos

0.011

0.001

--

0.012

Sumicidon

0.002

--

--

0.002

Total

0.364

0.670

0.691

1.725

  The total impact of increase use of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation water led to increase productivity and intensification of agricultural practices in the State (Table-56).

 Table-56 : Yields in kg per ha (1999-2000)

Crop

Districts

North

Dhalai

West

South

Average

Rice

1987

1748

2319

2239

2073.25

Maize

810

800

795

800

801.25

Wheat

1880

1883

1938

1942

1910.75

Gram

619

500

655

645

604.75

Other Pulses

522

565

850

573

627.50

Total Pulses

524

563

840

575

625.50

Groundnut

685

918

942

1085

907.50

Sesamum

320

444

414

411

397.25

Rape & Mustard

592

799

720

888

749.50

Total Oilseeds

501

748

660

729

659.50

Potato

10676

18313

18352

18270

16402.75

Chilies

648

522

612

605

596.75

Ginger

1769

1718

2065

2008

1890

Tobacco

384

369

400

457

402.50

Sugarcane

54330

52632

51156

43462

500395.00

Turmeric

1564

1548

1875

2376

1840.75

Jute*

7.9

7.6

8.0

7.8

7.82

Mesta*

7.3

7.4

7.2

7.9

7.45

Cotton**

1.6

1.2

1.7

1.5

1.50

[Note: * = 180 kg/ha; ** = 170kg/ha]

8.6 High Yielding Varieties:

An increasing trend of the use of high yielding varieties of seeds for rice and wheat can be noted in all the district of Tripura. Of the total rice growing area of 232160 ha., 86% or 201760 ha. is occupied by high yielding varieties. Of the four district, the West district shows a figure of 92% followed by South district (88%), North district (79%) and Dhalai district (70%). In case of wheat, entire area of 1250 ha. in the state is occupied by high yielding varieties. No separate effort for on-farm conservation of indigenous/folk rice varieties is noted. This is absolutely essential for conservation of gene-pool and free exchange of seeds between farmers of the state.

8.7 Plantation Crop

8.7.1 Horticultural Crops:

The state has a long tradition of growing horticultural crops. Recent data clearly denotes the enormous potential of horticultural crops (Table:-57) showing significant rise in term of area coverage and production.

Table-57 : Decadal changes of Horticultural Crops

 

1981-1982

1988-1989

1999-2000

 

Area

Production (MT)

Area

Production (MT)

Area

Production (MT)

Pineapple

2,350

10,205

3,269

24,500

4,697

42,273

Orange

3,320

9,550

6,525

31,360

5,427

29,850

Jackfruit

6,420

1,68,000

6,535

1,71,600

8,929

2,50,021

Coconut

1,620

16,80,000 (Nos.)

7,026

42,16,000 (Nos.)

9,184

81,08,000 (Nos.)

Arecanut

653

970

1,223

2,230

2,436

4,872

Cashewnut

1,538

120

6,419

540

7,039

2,816

Litchi

3,220

4,020

8,837

5,300

4,800

28,800

Source: Economic Review, Tripura, 1999-2000. 

8.7.2 Rubber

Of the plantation crops in Tripura, Rubber, introduced by the Forest Department in 1963 has taken the place of pride. Currently approximately 23,000 ha., land are under natural rubber plantation in Tripura spread of four districts. The West Tripura district has 9,953 ha., in 320 villages, followed by South Tripura- 8,246 ha., in 114 village areas, North Tripura- 3,594 ha., in 60 village areas and Dhalai district-1,141 ha., in 38 village areas. The production data as per 1999-2000 Economic Review stands at 6346 mt, valued at Rs. 1649 lakh. Tripura is the second largest rubber producing state in India after Kerala.

However, potential of extending Rubber production area, according to survey report of National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning in recent year, shows as 1.0 lakh hectare or 10 percent of the total geographical area of the State; it shows therefore a scope for 4 fold increase.

No Environmental Impact Assessment has been carried out on the changing land use and land cover pattern due to suggested expansion of rubber plantation. The possible impact should be studied on soil, forest resource change, biodiversity and hydrology.

Currently raw rubber is being sent out for value addition. A proposal is in the offing for value added product of rubber to be manufactured within the State.

8.7.3 Tea

Tea plantation in the State is reportedly facing serious crisis due to insurgency problem. No recent data on the area under tea, number of operational garden, annual production and total value of the production is available. However, the last available data of 1994 and 1995 data shows that, the State has 55 tea gardens covering an area of 6433.08 ha. The production as per 1995 data stands at 49,25,053 kg (both Black and Green tea) and number of workers working in that period was 10,576 daily on an average. Table-58 shows the district wise number of gardens, production during the year of 1995.

Table -58 : District wise number of gardens, production

Sl. No.

District

No. of Tea garden

Production (in kg)

1.

North Tripura

23

3268590

2.

West Tripura

24

1259514

3.

South Tripura

3

28792

4.

Dhalai

5

315157

 

Total

55

4925053

8.8 Soil Fertility and Agriculture

An ICAR report shows that soils under shifting cultivation sites, a gradual decline in soil pH, organic carbon, CEC, available NPK and exchangeable Ca and Mg within a three year cycle (M. Datta et.al. 1995). Water holding capacity also decreased in the shifting cultivation areas. Available nitrogen though declined over the shifting cycle was however not in the deficient range.

8.9 Animal Husbandry

The livestock populations include Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Goat, Pig; the impact of grazing on the forest ecosystem can be correlated with the increase or decline of livestock, specially Cattle and Buffalo. The available data for three quinquennial census shows a distinct upward trend (Table-59). No recent quantified data on milk yield, meat yield vis-ŕ-vis the number of livestock is available. The last data available for milk production shows an increase from 25,000 t (1986-87) to 39,000 t in 1995-96.

Table- 59 : Livestock and Poultry population according to Livestock Census 1997 in Tripura

Sl. No.

Species

West district

South district

Dhalai district

North district

Tripura

1.

Cattle

645393

269198

112871

200106

1227568

2 .

Buffalo

9320

1870

4441

2261

17892

3.

Sheep

3101

1915

545

593

6154

4.

Goat

341223

139863

49737

108592

639415

5.

Pig

100495

94940

9838

31624

236897

6.

Duck

457441

192086

56579

170413

876519

7.

Fowl

1400602

635153

197977

443521

2677253

  [Source: Directorate of Animal Resource Development]

The poultry population- Duck and Fowl-likewise shows a remarkable growth rate, almost doubling in 10 years period (Table-60)

Table-60: Comparative Livestock and Poultry population as per last three quinquennial Livestock and Poultry Census

 

Species

Population 1987

Population 1992

Increase/ Decrease (%)

Population 1997

Increase/ Decrease (%)

Cattle

827588

950239

13% (+)

1227568

23% (+)

Buffalo

16418

19681

17% (+)

17892

9%  (-)

Sheep

2833

4885

42% (+)

6154

21% (+)

Goat

441972

513176

14% (+)

639415

20% (+)

Pig

88230

188271

53% (+)

236897

21% (+)

Duck

460918

612361

25% (+)

876519

30% (+)

Fowl

1397697

1975738

29% (+)

2677253

26% (+)

[Source : Directorate of Animal Resource Development]

Of all the districts of Tripura, West District seems to be most richly endowed with domesticated animal resources.

The number of breeding farms for cattle, Pig and Poultry farms have increased by three times between 1990-91 and 1998-99, with the highest number being in the West District (Table-61).

Table - 61: Breeding farms in Tripura

Sl. No.

District

Cattle Breeding Farms

Poultry Breeding Farms

Pig Breeding Farms

1.

West District

2

1

2

2.

North District

-

1

1

3.

South District

-

1

2

4.

Dhalai District

-

-

1

 

Total

2

3

6

[Source : Directorate of Animal Resource Development, 1999]

No data was available on the census of domesticated breeds of animals in the State, which is deemed essential for conservation of animal genetic resources. However a ratio of total crossbreed and indigenous varieties of Cattle, Buffalo and Pigs for the years 1982, 1987 and 1992 could be seen in Table-62.

Table – 62 : Indigenous & Cross Breed Domesticated animal resource

Year

Cattle

Buffalo *

Sheep

Pigs

Goats

Indigen-ous

Cross breed

Indigenous/

Cross breed

Indigenous

Cross breed

Indigen-ous

Cross breed

Indigen-ous

Cross breed

1982

644374

36045

15904

4881

378

98521

4927

343029

-

1987

766109

61479

16418

2626

207

85026

3204

441972

-

1992

842836

87403

19681

4631

254

176137

12134

513176

-

Note : * Indigenous and Cross Breed not differentiated

[Source: State Animal Husbandry Department, Govt. of Tripura]

The above table shows that indigenous varieties distinctly outnumber the population of crossbreed varieties during 1982, 1987, 1992 census.

8.10 Fisheries

The inland water area of Tripura and its biological resources has been dealt under “Biodiversity”. The available data for 1990-91to 1998-99 shows marginal increase of commercial fishing from 21,100 mt in 1990-91 to 23,764 mt in 1998-99. The subsistence fishing data however shows remarkable changes from 95 mt in 1990-91 to 3325 mt in 1998-99 (Table-63).

Table-63: Production of fish in Tripura

Year/District

Production (in mt)

 

Fish Curring (Sun drying)

Inland fish

Subsistence fish

Total

Value (in lakh)

Production (in mt)

Value (in lakh)

1990-91

21100

95

21195

5931

22

3

1991-92

21640

1604

23244

6973

11

3

1992-93

21730

1636

23366

7009

14

5

1993-94

22542

1960

24502

7840

15

6

1994-95

23095

2008

25103

8786

15

11

1995-96

23396

2314

25710

10541

46

38

1996-97

21980

3020

25000

11250

876

658

1997-98

23343

3149

26492

12981

488

439

1998-99

23764

3225

26989

13494

499

469

(By District) 1998-99

West District

8080

1184

9264 (9373)

4632

249

234

North District

4400

662

5062 (5182)

2531

66

63

South District

8319

1001

9320 (9522)

4660

151

142

Dhalai District

2965

378

3343 (3798)

1671

33

30

Note:

1. Excluding subsistence fish,

2. Catch of fish by non-professional.

3. Within parenthesis, data is based on 1999-2000.

[Source: Superintendent Engineer, Water Resource, Govt. of Tripura]

The area under fish culture is currently estimated at 22.921 ha with 29,340 mt production in 2000 AD. During 2000 AD, 1,04,952 fish seeds were produced. A total of 128 Fishermen Cooperative Societies are operating in the State.

District wise fisheries production data when analyzed, shows, that South District tops the list followed by West, North and the Dhalai districts.

The fishery potentials of the State needs an in depth study both in terms of capture fisheries and Culture fisheries. No data is available for Shell fisheries.

   
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